Category: Science

“Chemtrails” Now Recognised In Revised Cloud Atlas.

Hell has frozen over. Pigs are flying. AND…..

BBC: ‘Chemtrails’ To Be Recognised As New Type Of Cloud

According to the BBC, chemtrails are to be officially recognised as a new type of cloud in the International Cloud Atlas. 

According to BBC meteorologist John Hammond, the trails left behind in the sky by airplanes, known by many as ‘chemtrails’, will now be added to an official cloud reference encyclopedia, solidifying their status as a scientifically recognised phenomena.

In the modern day you will look up to the sky and see clouds made by airplanes. Once they are made they can linger for days,” John Hammond says.

BBC Science reports:

Now, embracing the digital era, the new atlas will initially be available as a web portal, and accessible to the public for the first time.

The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) publishes the atlas, and also has the final say on the contents, including the addition of “new” clouds and cloud features.

This time around 12 new terms have been added. The best known of these is asperitas, meaning rough-like in Latin, as the clouds can look like the tossing of the waves at sea when viewed from below.

These clouds were first recorded over Iowa in the US in 2006, but soon a torrent of similar images from around the world began to pour in to the Cloud Appreciation Society, a citizen science body.

They began to lobby the WMO for official recognition of the cloud type. But the fact that it has now been officially included came as something of a surprise.

“Back in 2008, I thought the chances of this becoming official were really minimal,” said Gavin Pretor-Pinney, president of the society.

“At first the WMO were saying they had no plans to do a new edition, but over time I think they began to realise there is an interest among the public in clouds and there is a need for that interest to be an informed one, there’s a need for this authoritative work.”

Asperitas becomes the first addition of a new recognisable term since 1953. In addition several other supplementary features of clouds have also been added including cavum, cauda (known as a tail cloud), fluctus and murus (known as a wall cloud).

In terms of the way the WMO classifies clouds, they have also added one new “species” – the volutus, or roll-cloud, a low horizontal tube-shaped cloud mass that appears to roll about a horizontal axis.

A key element in the evolution of the atlas has been the impact of technology. People all over the world are able to capture and exchange images on their smart phones of fleeting cloud formations.

“People don’t have to be an official weather observer, they don’t have to be schooled in the finer points of the International Cloud Atlas, they just go ‘that’s amazing’ and take a picture and send it to us, and being in the centre of that network we can spot a pattern,” said Gavin Pretor-Pinney.

The atlas also includes a recognition of the processes that can lead to cloud formation, so the clouds that arise from wildfires are now classified as flammagenitus.

Similarly patches of cloud that are formed over forests and over waterfalls are classified, but also one of the most widely seen features in the sky, contrails formed from the exhausts of airplanes, are given greater recognition.

“In the modern day you will look up to the sky and see clouds made by airplanes. Once they are made they can linger for days,” said BBC meteorologist John Hammond.

“It’s one example of how crucial knowledge of cloud physics is – it’s not just an aesthetic, our knowledge of clouds is still fairly limited.”

The new atlas also recognises some weather features that not everyone might agree can be seen as clouds. These include rainbows, halos, snow devils and hailstones.

“There is a blurred edge between what is a cloud and what is a sheet of hail falling from the sky,” said John Hammond.

“There are grey areas around the edge of this. All types of optical effects can be defined as clouds, be they halos or snow devils or rainbows, but I’m a little bit old-fashioned and I struggle with the inclusion of rainbows as clouds.”

Hammond believes that there will be many new entries in the future as long as the public remains engaged in the subject and he believes the opening up of the atlas via a web portal is a very good thing towards that end.

Gavin Pretor-Pinney from the Cloud Appreciation Society agrees that opening up the atlas is a huge positive.

“The value of the atlas is that it draws our attention to the sky and by learning the name of the formations, that is the way we pay attention to and value what we see around us.

“By giving a language to the forms of our atmosphere we are helping people to value our atmosphere and to pay attention our impact on it.”

Source

BBC: ‘Chemtrails’ To Be Recognised As New Type Of Cloud

 

 

 

 

 

 

NASA’s Plan To Make Mars Habitable Again

NASA wants to launch a giant magnetic field to make Mars habitable

So crazy it just might work.

NASA scientists have proposed a bold plan that could give Mars its atmosphere back and make the Red Planet habitable for future generations of human colonists.

 

By launching a giant magnetic shield into space to protect Mars from solar winds, the space agency says we could restore the Red Planet’s atmosphere, and terraform the Martian environment so that liquid water flows on the surface once again.

Mars may seem like a cold, arid wasteland these days, but the Red Planet is thought to have once had a thick atmosphere that could have maintained deep oceans filled with liquid water, and a warmer, potentially habitable climate.

Scientists think Mars lost all of this when its protective magnetic field collapsed billions of years ago, and solar wind – high-energy particles projected from the Sun – has been stripping the Red Planet’s atmosphere away ever since.

Now, new simulations by NASA suggest there could be a way to naturally give Mars its thick atmosphere back – and it doesn’t require nuking the Red Planet into submission, as Elon Musk once proposed.

Instead, the space agency thinks a powerful-enough magnetic shield launched into space could serve as a replacement for Mars’s own lost magnetosphere, giving the planet a chance to naturally restore its own atmosphere.

In new findings presented at the Planetary Science Vision 2050 Workshop last week, NASA’s Planetary Science Division director, Jim Green, said launching an “artificial magnetosphere” into space between Mars and the Sun could hypothetically shield the Red Planet in the extended magnetotail that trails behind the protective field.

“This situation then eliminates many of the solar wind erosion processes that occur with the planet’s ionosphere and upper atmosphere allowing the Martian atmosphere to grow in pressure and temperature over time,” the researchers explain in an accompanying paper.

While the team acknowledges that the concept might sound “fanciful”, they point to existing miniature magnetosphere research being conducted to protect astronauts and spacecraft from cosmic radiation, and think that the same technology on a larger scale could be used to shield Mars.

“It may be feasible that we can get up to these higher field strengths that are necessary to provide that shielding,” Green said in his presentation.

“We need to be able then to also modify that direction of the magnetic field so that it always pushes the solar wind away.”

In the team’s simulations, if the solar wind were counteracted by the magnetic shield, Mars’s atmospheric losses would stop, and the atmosphere would regain as much as half the atmospheric pressure of Earth in a matter of years.

As the atmosphere becomes thicker, the team estimates Mars’s climate would become around 4 degrees Celsius (7.2 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer, which would be enough to melt carbon dioxide ice over the Red Planet’s northern polar cap.

If this happened, the carbon in the atmosphere would help to trap heat like it does on Earth, triggering a greenhouse effect that could melt Mars’s water ice, giving the Red Planet back its liquid water in the form of flowing rivers and oceans.

If all of this were to occur as the team anticipates – and admittedly, that’s a pretty fantastical if – it’s possible that, within the space of a couple of generations, Mars could regain some of its lost Earth-like habitability.

“This is not terraforming as you may think of it where we actually artificially change the climate, but we let nature do it, and we do that based on the physics we know today,” Green said.

The team acknowledges that the plan is largely hypothetical at this point, but it’s a pretty amazing vision for what might be possible in the years ahead. The researchers intend to keep studying the possibilities to get a more accurate estimate of how long the climate-altering effects would take.

If the concept does prove workable, there’s no telling just how much it would alter the prospects of colonising Mars in the future.

“Much like Earth, an enhanced atmosphere would: allow larger landed mass of equipment to the surface, shield against most cosmic and solar particle radiation, extend the ability for oxygen extraction, and provide ‘open air’ green-houses to exist for plant production, just to name a few,” the researchers explain.

“If this can be achieved in a lifetime, the colonisation of Mars would not be far away.”

The findings were presented at the Planetary Science Vision 2050 Workshop.

By Peter Dockrill / Staff Writer

Peter Dockrill is an award-winning writer and the former Online Editor of APC and TechLife. He’s also the technology columnist for Money magazine.

http://tinyurl.com/z6gfg7y

Via Nexus Newsfeed.

Who Wants To Live Forever?

  • Scientists have discovered a key signalling process in DNA repair
  • They have used this process in the development of a drug to reverse ageing 
  • Trials on mice found that the pill repaired DNA damage after a week
  • Nasa wants the new technology to protect its astronauts from solar radiation 

Scientists have made a discovery that could lead to a revolutionary drug that actually reverses ageing.

The drug could help damaged DNA to miraculously repair and even protect Nasa astronauts on Mars by protecting them from solar radiation.

A team of researchers developed the drug after discovering a key signalling process in DNA repair and cell ageing.

Scientists have made a discovery that could lead to a revolutionary drug that actually reverses ageing. A team of researchers developed the drug after discovering a key signalling process in DNA repair and cell ageing

Scientists have made a discovery that could lead to a revolutionary drug that actually reverses ageing. A team of researchers developed the drug after discovering a key signalling process in DNA repair and cell ageing

THE ANTI-AGEING DRUG TRIALS

The experiments in mice, from a team at the University of New South Wales, suggest a treatment is possible for DNA damage from ageing and radiation.

It is so promising it has attracted the attention of Nasa scientists in their quest to reach Mars.

While our cells can naturally repair DNA damage – such as damage caused by the sun – this ability declines with age.

The scientists identified that the call signalling molecule NAD+, which is naturally present in every cell in the body, has a key role in protein interactions that control DNA repair.

Treating mice with an NAD+ ‘booster’ called NMN improved their cells’ ability to repair DNA damage caused by radiation exposure or old age.

Human trials of NMN therapy will begin within six months.

During trials on mice, the team found that the drug directly repaired DNA damage caused by radiation exposure or old age.

‘The cells of the old mice were indistinguishable from the young mice after just one week of treatment,’ said lead author Professor David Sinclair.

Human trials of the pill will begin within six months.

So since we can’t geoengineer Mars due to the lack of magnetosphere, we need to re-engineer humans for life on Mars? Opens up a whole world of speculation and dot-joining methinks….
…However, maybe NASA has a solution to the magnetosphere issue?
But what effect putting a giant magnet at the Lagrange point? How will this affect Earth?
Anyone have any thoughts on this?

What Causes Whale Strandings?

Search for Clues to What Causes Whale Strandings

 

Photo

Pilot whales during a mass stranding in New Zealand. Scientists speculate that the large amounts of energy that dolphins and whales expend when fleeing threats may be linked to mass strandings. Credit Marty Melville/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Take half a dozen retired Navy dolphins and put them in a huge tank with a trainer and some oversized hula hoops for six months and what do you get? Potential clues to unraveling the mysteries behind why some marine mammals are susceptible to mass strandings, scientists hope.

In a study published Wednesday in The Journal of Experimental Biology, scientists showed that dolphins and whales used more energy to swim fast than to cruise at normal speeds. This may seem obvious, but marine mammals aren’t supposed to get tired swimming. We have assumed that these master divers have adapted physiological workarounds that help them conserve oxygen and energy. And most of the time, they have. But this study suggests that vigorous swimming to avoid threats — posed by people as well as predators — could come at a cost to mammals that live in the seas.

Terrie M. Williams, who studies ecophysiology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and her team worked with trainers to encourage the dolphins, as well as one retired theme park killer whale, to perform a variety of behaviors in large saltwater tanks. Some animals would rest at the surface or submerged, move in a straight line across a pool, cruise the perimeter or dive down to swim through hoops placed in different arrangements at the pool’s bottom. To the sound of a whistle, they surfaced beneath a special hood and inhaled air while Dr. Williams measured their breathing and oxygen intake. Across a variety of settings, she also measured heart rate, the frequency and amplitude of swimming strokes and swim gait.

Her team found that there was not a big difference between the energy the animals used at rest and while swimming at average speeds that range somewhere from 5 to 8 feet per second, according to the study. But drag in the water that increases with speed makes the cetaceans exert more energy as they move faster; the dolphins nearly doubled their normal energy use when swimming their hardest.

“When you’re trying to go at top speed, you’re really huffing and puffing,” she said. “ For these dolphins and whales, it’s the same thing.”

With the new results, Dr. Williams and her team created a model that would allow other scientists to predict the energetic cost of different swim styles in a variety of whales and dolphins. They hope their data can be used to understand how some dolphins and whales react physiologically to threats.

In the wild, a whale or dolphin normally swims in short bursts and glides that help it conserve energy. Dolphins and whales swim faster while hunting prey. But when avoiding a predator or human disturbance (like military sonar or seismic exploration), it may ascend from a dive quickly, switching to faster, constant strokes that last longer than usual. In a separate study, Cuvier’s beaked whales increased their speed and stroke rate for nearly two hours after exposure to sonar.

Dr. Williams applied the model to data from that study, and found that the whales would use around 30 percent more energy to power their fins as they rapidly swam away.

The extra energy it takes to flee a perceived threat may have important implications for what happens to marine mammals physiologically during mass strandings, said Dr. Williams.

“You would think that the marine mammals would have it figured out,” she said, protecting themselves by collapsing their lungs or lowering their heart rate during a dive.

She points to a case in 2002, when a handful of beaked whales thought to be trying to escape sonar from naval exercises wound up stranded in the Canary Islands. Oddly, despite adaptations allowing the whales to dive at great depths, some showed signs of decompression illness, the same condition that affects some scuba divers when they ascend too quickly. The illness, also called the bends, results when compressed air bubbles get trapped in body tissue or vital organs, including the brain.

Although she has yet to prove it and admits that the contributions to mass strandings are still poorly understood, Dr. Williams speculates that oceanic noise may contribute to the strandings of some beaked whales through some combination of changes in swimming style, increased energy demands and lack of oxygen to their brains.

“This would explain the ‘disorientation’ of stranded whales often cited by rescuers trying to coax the animals back into deeper water,” she said.

Andreas Fahlman, a comparative physiologist who studies deep-diving animals at Texas A&M University at Galveston and was not involved in the research, said that this new study was limited in its methods, but that increased work effort suggested overexertion in animals that could lead to elevated carbon dioxide levels, which could put them at an increased risk for bubble formation.

Dr. Williams is continuing her work in the wild with narwhals and hopes her research will contribute to a better understanding of how threat and escape affects marine mammals.

“In some ways marine mammals are built just like us,” she said. “In other ways they’ve adapted to that oceanic living in ways that we just don’t understand completely”.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/16/science/what-causes-whale-strandings.html?_r=1

Virtual Warfare 3D: US Navy

Rose Of The Machines

The future is going to be ridiculous.

BEC CREW
27 FEB 2017

Scientists have figured out how to inject a conducting solution into a rose cutting, and have it spontaneously form wires throughout its stem, leaves, and petals to create fully functioning supercapacitors for energy storage.

The so-called e-Plant was able to be charged hundreds of times without any loss on the performance, and the team behind the invention says it could allow us to one day create fuel cells or autonomous energy systems inside living plants.

“A few years ago, we demonstrated that it is possible to create electronic plants, ‘power plants’, but we have now shown that the research has practical applications,” says one of the team, Magnus Berggren from Linköping University in Sweden.

“We have not only shown that energy storage is possible, but also that we can deliver systems with excellent performance.”

Back in 2015, the team produced their first cyborg rose by filling its veins with a conductive polymer solution, and having it weave the material into its living tissue.

As Aviva Rutkin reported for New Scientist at the time, this ended up being a whole lot more difficult than it sounds, because they had to find a material that had decent conductivity, wasn’t toxic to the plant, and didn’t clog or fail to stick to the inner surface of its veins, known as xylem.

They finally found a solution that worked – PEDOT, or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) – and soaked a regular garden rose cutting in it.

Within just two days, they found that the conducting polymer had been absorbed into its network of veins, and when they removed the outer tissue of the base of the stem, they found actual polymer wires running through the rose’s internet xylem network.

By placing gold electrodes and probes on the ends and in the middle of the rose cutting, the team created a fully functional transistor. They connected it to an external resistor and successfully ran a current through it:

151119-flower-67-edit-1200x800

Berggren described to New Scientist the moment when one of his team, Eleni Stavrinidou, demonstrated the final result.

“When Eleni showed me these beautiful microscope pictures, we understood immediately: we could make circuits out of this,” he said. “The performance, the shape of the wires, were just outstanding, unbelievable.”

Fast-forward to today, and the researchers have taken things one step further.

They’ve managed to tweak the polymer solution so that it spreads autonomously throughout the entire plant – including the leaves and petals – not just localised regions of the stem in the previous experiment.

Not only did the new gel, called ETE-S, disperse throughout the entire vascular tissue of the cutting, but when it solidified into wires, they had two orders of magnitude greater conductivity than those in the previous e-Plants, and retained the high level of conductivity over several centimetres of the plant.

When they peered inside the rose tissue, the researchers found that the polymer solution had permeated its vascular walls to sit between the cell wall and plasma membrane.

This allowed them to turn the network of wires into a fully functioning electronic device by placing several supercapacitors – powerful components used in many different kinds of electronics to store large amounts of electrical energy – along the stem.

For this, the team used the wires as the electrodes, and the plant tissue between them as the electrolyte separator – a permeable membrane that physically separates the electrodes to prevent a short circuit.

They were able to run the e-Plant through repeated charge cycles without losing any efficiency.

“We have been able to charge the rose repeatedly, for hundreds of times without any loss on the performance of the device,” Stavrinidou says in a press statement. 

“The levels of energy storage we have achieved are of the same order of magnitude as those in [traditional] supercapacitors. The plant can, without any form of optimisation of the system, potentially power our ion pump, for example, and various types of sensors.”

The next step for the researchers is to make the technique work in a living rose – not just a cutting – so that the possibility of growing primitive electronic systems inside forest vegetation or fields of vegetables to harvest energy could actually be realised.

It’s a fantastic or dystopian view of the future, depending on how you look at it, but this e-Plant just got us one step closer.

As computer scientist Andrew Adamatzky, who’s been applying voltage to lettuce seedlings at Bristol Robotics Laboratory in the UK, told New Scientist in 2015, “In the very distant future – neither ourselves nor our kids will see this – we can grow vegetable computers in our gardens.”

The research has been published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

http://thecontrail.com/forum/topics/cyborg-rose-grows-functioning-electronic-circulatory-inside-its-s

Data stored on a single atom for the first time

Data stored on a single atom for the first time :

 

Innovation in electronics manufacturing is driven by a desire to make devices ever smaller but increasingly powerful. Moore’s Law has seen the power of computer chips double every two years without them growing in size, while data storage plateaued somewhat.

But in a breakthrough that could revolutionise the way information is stored, researchers have managed to store data on a single atom.

Researchers at IBM successfully coded an individual atom with a binary value of 0 or 1 in what is a major step forward for information storage. Experts in the field have described the research as a “landmark achievement” and said it could be used to increase hard-drive storage density by 1,000 times.

“It’s a landmark achievement,” Sander Otte, a physicist at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, told Nature.  “Finally, magnetic stability has been demonstrated undeniably in a single atom.”

Close-up of cables and LED lights in a data centre
Data is currently stored in vast centres that require masses of computer power Credit: Phototek

The researchers were able to imbue two Holmium atoms with separate binary values using a magnetised scanning tunnelling microscope. They then connected them to make a miniscule hard drive with four possible combinations.

With the majority of the data ever produced having been created in the past six years, atomic storage could be vital for reducing the space and energy used in keeping information.

If the system was scaled up it would be possible to store an iTunes library of 35 million songs on a credit card sized device, according to IEEE Spectrum.

To date, the smallest matter to have stored data was a magnetic grain with a diametre of 5 nanometers. A Holmium atom has a radius of 0.2 nanometres.

The researchers plan to further explore if the atoms of other elements, clusters of atoms and small molecules could also be used to store data.

It could also be used eventually to replace an electrical current in devices as the atoms could move information within a device, according to Otte. This could make for more energy efficient computers.

Brian Krzanich said Moore's law was not ove
Brian Krzanich said Moore’s law was not over Credit: Getty

The breakthrough indicates that there are still steps to be made to create more powerful, smaller and efficient computers.

Intel, whose founder was behind the Moore’s Law maxim that the power of chips doubling every two years without them growing in size, recently announced that the company will release a 10 nanometre chip in 2017. The news allayed doubts that manufacturers had reached a crunch point where it was no longer cost effective to uphold Moore’s Law.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/03/09/data-stored-single-atom-first-time/

 Another step down the Transhumanist path……..

Image result for star trek borg you will be assimilated

 

Dutchsinse: HAARP, NEXRAD, Weather Mod. Explained

You will never find a better verbal explanation than this. Dutchsinse is a veteran researcher and observer who’s developed an amazing knack for earthquake forecasting.

For those who may not know, HAARP is up and running after a temporary hiatus, and is just one of a whole worldwide network of ionospheric heating devices that can alter the weather, trigger earthquakes, generate artificial auroras etc,

But I’ll let Dutchsinse do the talking: