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ON THE BRINK RADIO #219 IN 5 HRS: WHALE & DOLPHIN UPDATE PART 3 – MUSIC AS A FORM OF COMMUNICATION

“MUSIC SPANS THE ABYSS AND HEALS THE NATIONS”

SATURDAYS@ 9AM EST-USA / FRIDAY 3 AM HAWAI’I TIME / SATURDAY 11 PM MELBOURNE/SYDNEY/TASMANIA TIME AUSTRALIA / 2 AM NEW ZEALAND TIME and SUNDAYS @ 8AM EST-USA / SATURDAY 2 AM HAWAI’I TIME / SUNDAY 10 PM MELBOURNE/SYDNEY/TASMANIA TIME AUSTRALIA/MONDAY MIDNIGHT NEW ZEALAND TIME 
UCY.TV ‘S LISTEN LIVE LINK:

LISTEN AND/OR DOWNLOAD ANYTIME ARCHIVE LINK FOR THIS SHOW:
https://soundcloud.com/jeff-wefferstotle/on-the-brink-24-the-white
 
Welcome to On the Brink Radio broadcast #219. This is part 3 of my on-going whale and dolphin update; this show, however, is not about grim global threats to marine life and Mother Ocean herself, but about my original approach to relating with cetaceans:  using music as a form of communication.

This broadcast itself is a replay of episode #24 from 2013 and is a ‘non-verbal talk radio broadcast, which Jules Stanley at ucy.tv lets me do now and then, and consists of almost the entirety of my first cd of grand piano improvisations, ‘The White Electric Dog Transmissions’ (1998) and songs of the humpback whales. The mix was created in 2013; the whale songs were added in after the recording. The synchronization is only that of starting both recordings at the same time.


“The White Electric Dog Transmissions”
http://thebrink-jeffphillips.blogspot.co.nz/2012/05/white-electric-dog-transmissions-jeff.html

I’m not going to ‘talk’ about music right now, but hopefully you will listen to this broadcast. I love piano but have never claimed to be a pianist by jazz or classical standards; au contraire, I do my own thing with the piano. My playing is more about the sounds, the feeling, the music, than it is about the notes and technical aspects.

Here are a couple of things I have written about music and sound in the context of relating with cetaceans.



from ‘Man and Dolphin’, Jeff Phillips, Magical Blend magazine (1980)
http://tutunui-wananga.blogspot.co.nz/2009/08/man-and-dolphin-jeff-phillips.html 

“The case of music is very special and very interesting. Let’s consider instrumental, or non-verbal, music. Music is sound, vibrations in air, just like speech and noise. But what makes it “music?” It is sound which is ordered in specific ways. Music has definite patterns of rhythmic (temporal) variation and repetition, and definite patterns of harmonic (frequency relationship) variation and repetition. We are speaking of western music. Eastern music is basically rhythmic and not harmonic, i.e., utilizing chords. Western music is rhythmic and harmonic. Basically, music is combinations of sounds that sound good to us. It is the frequency relationships that determine whether or not we call it music: western music utilizes any types of rhythms, but a more limited number of frequency relationships, or chords. What we call chords are sounds whose frequencies relate to each other in ratios of the reciprocals of small whole numbers.
What does music communicate? Many things, basically feelings and emotions, which we all experience intensely but which we know little about. They are very important to us; in fact, they seem to be the essence of life. But why? The concept of resonance is very important. Resonance is a measure of how well two or more systems vibrate together. Two lovers are resonating well…their bodily rhythms are highly attuned to each other. Musicians playing together are causing their instruments to resonate harmoniously, producing music; if they are playing jazz, then their own bodily rhythms and feelings are being expressed by and through the music, reaching you, the listener, thereby effecting communication. Jazz is very emotional music; Bach is a superb blend of intellect and emotion.
Feeling and emotion seem to be connected to resonance.14 We believe that the same music affects different people in similar ways, if they are in a similar state, and are open to it. How can this be of use in communicating with dolphins? We know already that dolphins are highly and positively responsive to music, but that’s about all. An interesting area for experimentation. We need more research into how our nervous systems perceive and structure sound patterning; music could be a powerful future tool.”

from “We are not alone…Yet: How We are Waging War on a True ‘Extra-terrestrial Intelligence”, Jeff Phillips, Uncensored Magazine, 2012
http://tutunui-wananga.blogspot.co.nz/2012/08/we-are-not-aloneyet-how-we-are-waging.html



‘SEEING’ WITH SOUND, ‘TALKING’ WITH MUSIC

“Cetaceans are the ‘masters of sound’ on our planet.  As mammals, they have the same basic array of sensory apparati that we have, but their primary sense uses sound, whereas ours uses light.  They have keen vision similar to ours, but our auditory capacities are quite limited and ‘low bandwidth’ compared to theirs. Another phenomenal ability they have developed is the ability to ‘see with sound.’ We see using ambient (or artificial) light; they are able to ‘see with sound’ using sound that they themselves project, as if we were able to see in the dark using light we projected from our own bodies.  This is much simpler, more efficient, more ‘environmentally friendly’ than using external electrically-powered light sources.

‘Seeing’ with sound in this way is known as‘echo-location’ because it involves projecting a sound then analysing the returning signals which convey information about the local environment, and inspired the development of ‘sonar’ (24) used universally by military, commercial, and recreational marine vessels. 

Moths, bats and other animals are known to ‘echo-locate’ as well, but cetaceans have taken their use of sound…or ‘ultra-sound’ to be more precise…to another level and are able to ‘see inside’ of each others’ bodies!



In addition, they have one or more channels of sound production used for communication purposes.  These sounds, which can be produced simultaneously with ‘echo-location’, occur in an extremely wide frequency bandwidth, ranging from several Hertz (cycles per second) to over 200,000 Hz. Human hearing in general ranges from about 50 Hz to 20,000 Hz.  To us, the small part of this we can actually hear sounds like complex patterns of clicks, whistles, moans, and groans.  The sounds made by hump-back whales sound a lot like singing, or vocal music(25) It’s these channels of sound that would come closest to ‘language’. The sounds they produce don’t come out of their mouth but are projected ahead of them directly through a complex network of bones, tissues and fluids in their heads.  When they attempt to ‘vocalize’ in air, these sounds come out of their blow-holes, through which they breathe.  Bottle-nosed dolphins have gone to extreme lengths to imitate human speech in this way, which is quite extraordinary. (26)

Finally, cetaceans in general possess yet another use of sound, that of sending out a powerful shock-wave or blast that can stun fish and be used as a weapon.

The ancient Greeks, among other cultures, were very familiar with cetaceans, and wrote extensively about how dolphins loved interacting with people and were attracted to and seemed to love music, particularly that of the flute and lyre. (27)

Cetaceans live in a world of sound, where light is often diminished or absent entirely; they can ‘see’ and hear; communicate, even over great distances; navigate, obtain information from their local environment, find food and partners, and protect themselves all using sound in ways that are totally alien to humans.  Yet they can see as well as we can, and can stick their heads out of the water to have a look at the stars…or us.


ALEX LAUTERWASSER’S WHALE CYMATIC

Despite many claims to the contrary, we have absolutely no way of ‘decoding’, ‘translating’ or understanding their communications with each other.  Marine biologists excel at behavioural observations, but are totally clueless when it comes to what cetaceans might be thinking, feeling or experiencing.  They don’t use ‘language’ and they don’t ‘talk’ among themselves or with us.  They communicate with highly complex and information-rich sound, but in many other ways as well, that we require complex external technologies even to approximate.  Being mammals on the same planet, their communications probably have a lot in common with ours; having been here ten times longer than us, living in the ocean with no hands in a world of sound, their communications, their entire ‘reality’ may on the other hand be incomprehensibly indecipherable to us in terms of information transfer as commonly understood.

Competent and successful multi-dimensional communication is the foundation of a shared and meaningful ‘consensus reality’ and true ‘mental health’ in humans; respect as fellow beings is a necessary prerequisite to true communication at any level, intra- or inter-species.”

TWO RECENT BLOG POSTINGS YOU MIGHT FIND OF INTEREST:


CARL SAGAN: ASTRONOMER, EDUCATOR, NUCLEAR AWARENESS ACTIVIST: I MET HIM ON 12 OCTOBER 1992
http://synthaissance.blogspot.co.nz/2017/10/carl-sagan-astronomer-educator-and.html


ELON ‘GENERAL ELECTRIC’ MUSK BUYS ENTIRE U.S. MILITARY, DECLARES WAR ON ‘CLIMATE CHANGE’: “WE ARE GOING TO KILL IT DEAD!”

 
“I must create a system, or be enslaved by another man’s.”  William Blake

“On Spaceship Earth, there are no passengers:  everyone is crew.”  R. Buckminster Fuller
 

Google Image Search Utility

Ever wanted to quickly identify the source of an article or image? Or determine if an image has been photoshopped, faked, or re-used for purposes of misinformation?

Google’s ‘Search by Image’ utility makes this task incredibly simple! Here’s how…

 

STEP 1)  SEARCH FOR IMAGES:  Type in your chosen subject as you normally would. From the results page, select “Images” from the Google menu.

image search

STEP 2)  OBTAIN URL OF IMAGE: Right-Click on the image for which you want additional information and then Click ‘Copy Image Location’.

 

STEP 3) PASTE URL INTO IMAGE SEARCH: Click the camera icon at the right side of the “Search” box.

(HINT: The images nearest the top are usually the “purest” or closest to the original source)

STEP 4)  GET THE IMAGE HISTORY:  Enter the Image URL (right-click then ‘Paste’)  into the search box to initiate image search.

That’s it… Every instance where this image has been used, with the oldest at the top. And as a bonus, Google also provides a selection of visually similar images for comparison. This is very useful for sniffing-out doctored images and fakes. So not only can you get to the source of an article this way, but you can see every other instance of the use (or mis-use!) of the image and article!

Transhuman Agenda: Robots To Replace School Teachers

 Science Fiction authors generally have a knack of forecasting future realities. In his epic work Dune, Frank Herbert saw a future where humans became so dependant on artificial intelligence that they ended up being enslaved by their own technology. Movies like AI and Bicentennial Man predicted robots acquiring the same rights as humans and living among us as equals.

And while in Dune the humans escaped their slavery and banned “thinking machines”, in The Matrix movie trilogy, humans were relegated to useful sources of energy for the machines, their bodies harvested to use as batteries.

The fiction is becoming reality at an incredible pace, as this latest news item demonstrates:

 Image result for robots to replace teachers ten years

In ten years, robots will teach pupils

ROBOTS will begin replacing teachers in the classroom within the next 10 years, as part of a revolution in one-to-one learning, a leading educationist has predicted.

Sir Anthony Seldon, vice-chancellor of the UK University of Buckingham, said intelligent machines that adapt to suit the learning styles of individual children would soon render traditional academic teaching all but redundant.Image result for robots to replace teachers ten years

Seldon said programmes being developed in Silicon Valley would learn to read the brains and facial expressions of pupils, adapting the method of communication that worked best for them.

The new era of automated teaching promises an end to grouping children by year, as the personalised nature of the robots would enable pupils to learn new material at their own pace, rather than as part of a class.

“Everyone can have the very best teacher and it’s completely personalised; the software you’re working with will be with you throughout your education journey,” he said.

However, he said that the technology would have to be carefully introduced to avoid “infantilising” pupils and teachers.

As part of robot-led learning, teachers would adopt the role of “overseers”, monitoring the progress of individual pupils.

The efficiency of automated teaching would also mean that only 30% percent of school time will be spent in class, Seldon predicted.

He heralds this new era in a book, The Fourth Revolution, due out next year.

“The impact is going to be massive. This is beyond anything that we’ve seen in the industrial revolution or since with any other new technology.” — The Daily Telegraph

https://www.pressreader.com/south-africa/daily-dispatch/20170912/281745564548314

ON THE BRINK RADIO #212 IN 2 HRS: ‘ABORIGINAL’ ART AS INTERNAL TECHNOLOGY/THE ‘NEW DREAMING’

TALKING ABOUT MUSIC IS LIKE DANCING ABOUT ARCHITECTURE’  STEVE MARTIN

SATURDAYS@ 9AM EST-USA / FRIDAY 3 AM

 HAWAI’I TIME / SATURDAY 11 PM MELBOURNE/SYDNEY/

TASMANIA TIME AUSTRALIA /1 AM NEW ZEALAND TIME

and SUNDAYS @ 8AM EST-USA / SATURDAY 2 AM HAWAI’I TIME / SUNDAY 10 PM MELBOURNE/SYDNEY/

TASMANIA TIME AUSTRALIA/MONDAY MIDNIGHT NEW ZEALAND TIME 
UCY.TV‘S LISTEN LIVE LINK:
http://ucy.tv/Default.aspx?PID=113&=On+the+Brink


THE ULTIMATE TECHNOLOGY, JEFF PHILLIPS

Welcome to another ‘indigecast’ of On the Brink Radio recorded once again in the dry bed of the Todd River in Alice Springs, Northern Territory of Australia. This show has been inspired not only by my presence in the heart of the dream-time but also being here for the last new moon and total solar eclipse visible across North America. It is a very important show in many ways and is really more of an outline of salient and inter-related topics being that the subject is so huge. I start out by examining ‘what is art?’ and then contrast ‘indigenous’ versus ‘civilized’ art as we have come to understand them. 


SIBERIAN ROCK ART

NAVAJO SAND PAINTING

CLIFFORD POSSUM

I progress into Jose Arguelle’s concept of ‘art as internal technology’, look at ‘aboriginal’ art here in Australia…a meaningless concept that really denotes a marketing category, as several hundred discrete and unique styles and modes of art and painting existed and continue to exist here…and then describe my own story and journey, from my calling to become an astronomer when I was 12, to getting involved with Dr. John Lilly’s dolphin communication group when I was 24, receiving a ‘call’ to come down under when I was 34, and actually coming down under when I was 44.


SERENA HAYES

JEFF PHILLIPS

A pretty amazing story, all told…and it keeps getting more amazing all the time.

DREAM-TIME DNA: A NON-LOCAL CONNECTION
http://synthaissance.blogspot.com.au/2009/07/dream-time-dna-non-local-connection_5781.html


UNCLE BOB RANDALL’S ROCK

CHAKRAS IN THE BODY OF THE RAINBOW SERPENT

LISTEN AND/OR DOWN-LOAD ANYTIME ARCHIVE LINK FOR THIS SHOW:
https://soundcloud.com/user-872276345/on-the-brink-radio-212-aboriginal-art-as-internal-technologynew-dreaming

BLOG POST FOR THIS SHOW (IN PROGRESS)
http://renavigating-the-human-process.blogspot.com.au/2017/08/aboriginal-art-as-internal.html

THE ‘CETACEAN KERINGKE LAWLOR LILLY NARBY VELIKOVSKY’ HYPOTHESIS

LISTEN AND/OR DOWN-LOAD ANYTIME ARCHIVE LINK
https://soundcloud.com/effachelsarsonfoday/on-the-brink-radio-113-cetacean-updatekllnv-hypothesis

In the second half of this show I introduce what I call the ‘Keringke-Lawlor-Lilly-Narby-Velikovsky’ Hypothesis, which not only describes several inter-related dimensions central to what my own personal life has been about thus far, but also to an understanding of what it means to be a human being in the world of today. This complex of connections relates the spiritual cosmologies of the indigenous people of Australia and their art as forms of ‘internal technology’; an understanding of water-based life on Mother Earth and planets in other star-systems, and the influence of the ‘solid state entity’, a electronic ‘life-form’ based on silicon; the cetaceans as ‘repeater stations’ for the signals of water-based life, as well as targets for elimination by the SSE; shamanic access of the consciousness of DNA; psychic and biological mutation of humanity as well as traumatization from repeated planetary level catastrophes spanning our entire existence.

THE ULTIMATE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

 

 

“I must create a system, or be enslaved by another man’s.”  William Blake

 

“On Spaceship Earth, there are no passengers:  everyone is crew.”  R. Buckminster Fuller
 

NY Library Brings Drag Queen To Kid’s Story Hour

The Associated Press released video footage from inside a Brooklyn public library as it hosts Drag Queen Story Hour for kids, something that has been scheduled every month since last fall.

The children sit around as a man who calls his alter-ego Lil’ Miss Hot Mess reads them stories and leads them in sing-alongs about drag queens. In the AP video, he reads a story about a female character whose friends think she should be less of a tomboy and dress and act like a girl. In another story, you hear the man read to the kids, “We can both be grooms.”

Lil’ Miss Hot Mess asks the kids, “Who wants to be a drag queen when they grow up?”

“Drag Queen Story Hour is fantastic because it addresses all of these issues of gender fluidity and self acceptance and all of these topics that, um, are real — are very, very real,” said Kat Savage of the Brooklyn Public Library.

And the packed room of parents apparently loved it.

“It was great!” one enthusiastic mother said. “So much energy.”

Another mother said, “You know, that’s what I’m looking for in all of our outings, is to present different ways of being in the world and make that fun and available to my kid.”

The library has received some backlash for hosting this reading hour, but Lil’ Miss Hot Mess, who doesn’t give his real name for fear of harassment, doesn’t mind: “Those are people who think gay people are sinful, or evil, or, you know, bad to begin with. So, we’re just starting from such different places that it’s kind of irrelevant to me.”

Plans are to expand the program to other libraries in New York City.

Vice did a short film on these monthly drag queen story hours when they began last year and discovered they also happen in San Francisco. A mother interviewed for the film said she’s already taken her daughter to two of them and is glad to expose her preschool daughter to the concept:

“From the very beginning, kids are pushed into these gender roles, which is absolutely absurd because they’re just kids. I want her to have the opportunity to just be whoever she’s going to be, and know that her parents are going to love her and be happy whether she’s a she or a he or anywhere in between.”

More:

https://thecontrail.com/forum/topics/nyc-san-francisco-public-libraries-host-monthly-drag-queen-story?xg_source=activity

(Thanks Snafu!)

Archaeology shocker: Study claims humans reached the Americas 130,000 years ago

Archaeology shocker: Study claims humans reached the Americas 130,000 years ago

 

Some 130,000 years ago, scientists say, a mysterious group of ancient people visited the coastline of what is now Southern California.

More than 100,000 years before they were supposed to have arrived in the Americas, these unknown people used five heavy stones to break the bones of a mastodon. They cracked open femurs to suck out the marrow and, using the rocks as hammers, scored deep notches in the bone. When finished, they abandoned the materials in the soft, fine soil; one tusk planted upright in the ground like a single flag in the archaeological record. Then the people vanished.

This is the bold claim put forward by paleontologist Thomas Deméré and his colleagues in a paper published Wednesday in the journal Nature. The researchers say that the scratched-up mastodon fossils and large, chipped stones uncovered during excavation for a San Diego highway more than 20 years ago are evidence of an unknown hominin species, perhaps Homo erectus, Neanderthals, maybe even Homo sapiens.

If Deméré’s analysis is accurate, it would set back the arrival date for hominins in the Americas and suggest that modern humans might not have been the first species to arrive. But the paper has raised skepticism among many researchers who study American prehistory. Several said this is a classic case of an extraordinary claim requiring extraordinary evidence — which they argue the Nature paper doesn’t provide.

“You can’t push human activity in the New World back 100,000 years based on evidence as inherently ambiguous as broken bones and nondescript stones,” said David Meltzer, an archaeologist at Southern Methodist University. “They need to do a better job showing nature could not be responsible for those bones and stones.”

For decades, discussion of early settlement of the Americas has focused on the tail end of the Ice Age. Most archaeologists agree that humans crossed a land bridge from Asia into Alaska sometime after 25,000 years ago, then either walked between ice sheets or took boats down the Pacific coastline to reach the wide open plains of Pleistocene America roughly 15,000 years before present. Though scientists debated the exact timing of this journey, their estimates differed by hundreds or a few thousand years, not tens of thousands.

“It is a bold claim,” Deméré acknowledged, “an order of magnitude older age than has been suggested.” But he asked his colleagues not to dismiss the research out of hand based only on a number.

“This evidence begs for some explanation,” he said, “and this is the explanation we’ve come up with.”

The rocks and mastodon remains were identified in 1992 by paleontologist Richard Cerutti, a colleague of Deméré’s at the San Diego Museum of Natural History. Cerutti was asked to monitor work on a new freeway south of San Diego in case any important fossils were uncovered.

When Cerutti spotted a broken tusk stuck in the soil overturned by an excavator, he called for a halt in activity and summoned Deméré to the site.

“You’ll want to see this,” Deméré recalled Cerutti saying.

The scientists set up a geographic grid system and began carefully excavating several more stones and bones, plotting each new object on their grid to preserve its location. It took several months to uncover every artifact.

“As the site unfolded over that five month period it became more and more exciting and more puzzling at the same time,” Deméré recalled.

San Diego Natural History Museum Paleontologist Don Swanson pointing at rock fragment near a large horizontal mastodon tusk fragment.© San Diego Natural History Museum San Diego Natural History Museum Paleontologist Don Swanson pointing at rock fragment near a large horizontal mastodon tusk fragment.

The biggest find was a partial skeleton from a single American mastodon. Peculiarly, the largest bones were scarred and broken, but more fragile ribs and vertebrae were still intact. Some of the bones seemed to have been arranged deliberately alongside one another. Many bore the spiral fractures that are a signature of ancient people hammering on fresh bone — either to extract marrow for food or break the bone into tools.

The bones were clustered in groups around a few large, heavy stones known as “cobbles.” The size and makeup of these rocks didn’t match the fine-grained surrounding soil. They bore marks you’d expect to see on a hammer and anvil. Scattered around the site were flakes that seem to have been chipped off the cobbles, as though someone had struck the rocks against another solid object. When held up to their source stones, the flakes fit back into them like pieces of a puzzle.

“It was unusual to say the least … and suggested this was a not a typical paleontological site and we should consider the possibility that we had association of extinct megafauna with humans, or at least early human activity,” Deméré said of the findings.

But it was difficult to figure out how old the site was. Any soft tissue in the fossilized bones had long decayed, so scientists couldn’t use radiocarbon dating to determine their age. They attempted to date fossils using the uranium-thorium method, which measures radioactive decay of uranium. But the technique was not very reliable at the time, so the Cerutti mastodon remained an enigma.

More than a decade later, a mutual friend put Deméré in touch with archaeologist Steve Holen. Holen believes that human history in the Americas dates back much farther than the end of the Ice Age, something he acknowledges is a “minority position” in his field. For several years, he has been examining museum collections and new fossil sites in search of ancient bones that look like they were touched by people.

The breaks on the mastodon fossils looked as though they were human-caused, he said. But to make sure, Holen tried to recreate them using a stone hammer the same size as the one found at the Cerutti site and the skeleton of an elephant that had been recently buried.

“The bone was extremely fresh and smelled very bad,” Holen said of that experiment. “I almost wished I wasn’t doing this.” It took all of Holen’s effort — and the help of a younger, stronger colleague — to break the bones. When they succeeded, they recognized the same breakage patterns as the ones found on the fossils. There’s no evidence that anyone hunted or butchered the mastodon for meat, but it definitely seemed to him like some human or human cousin had cracked the bones.

“Once you do the experiment then you really can understand this much better,” Holen said.

The surface of mastodon bone showing half impact notch on a segment of femur.© Tom Deméré, San Diego Natural History Museum The surface of mastodon bone showing half impact notch on a segment of femur.

Next the team reached out to geochronologist James Paces, who retried the now much-improved uranium-thorium dating technique on the bones. He concluded that they are 130,000 years old, give or take 9,400. This date corresponds with the accepted age of the layer of rock in which the bones and cobbles were found.

But it far exceeds any established date for settlement of the Americas. The oldest biological remains from any humans on the continent is a coprolite (fossilized poop) from 14,300 years ago. Studies based on genetic analysis of modern Native Americans suggest that humans didn’t make it over the land bridge that once linked northeast Asia to Alaska until 25,000 years ago.

If the stones and bones really are evidence of people, then who were they? How did they get to this part of the world so long ago? And why haven’t we found other evidence of their presence? Did they die out not long after they arrived?

A boulder discovered at the Cerutti Mastodon site thought to have been used by early humans as a hammerstone.© Tom Deméré, San Diego Natural History Museum A boulder discovered at the Cerutti Mastodon site thought to have been used by early humans as a hammerstone.

Because there are no hominin remains at the site, and rock hammer technology was used by many hominin species, the scientists caution that discussion of the identity of these people is purely speculative. In a supplement to their Nature paper, they say the Cerutti people may have been Neanderthals, Denisovans (a species known only from a few fragments found in a cave in northern Siberia), or members of the species Homo erectus. It seems unlikely that they were Homo sapiens — anatomically modern humans didn’t migrate out of Africa until after 100,000 years ago, according to most estimates.

As for how they got here, Deméré said they may have been able to cross the land bridge before the last ice age, when the planet warmed and sea levels rose. Other species migrated to the Americas in this period, Deméré said, and the hominins may have followed them over.

Otherwise, the first Americans could have used boats to cross the Bering Strait, and then scoot down the Pacific coast — archaeological finds on the Mediterranean island of Crete suggest that hominins were able to cross the sea via boat more than 100,000 years ago.

To some who study American prehistory, this interpretation of the Cerutti site beggars belief. Meltzer called the claim “grandiose.” Donald Grayson, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Washington, noted that history is rife with examples of scientists misinterpreting strange markings on stone as evidence of human activity. He pointed to the Calico Hills site in the Mojave Desert, which the archaeologist Louis Leakey believed contained 200,000-year-old stone tools. Subsequent studies have largely discredited Leakey’s claim — the apparent tools were most likely “geofacts,” natural stone formations that only look like they were crafted by humans.

Some of the fossil bones and rocks found at the Cerutti mastodon site.© San Diego Natural History Museum Some of the fossil bones and rocks found at the Cerutti mastodon site.

“It is one thing to show that broken bones and modified rocks could have been produced by people, which Holen and his colleagues have done,” Grayson said. “It is quite another to show that people, and people alone, could have produced those modifications. This, Holen [has] most certainly not done, making this a very easy claim to dismiss.”

Mike Waters, the director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M, also criticized the claim. To convince him that people were in the Americas so much earlier before the first physical evidence of their remains, he would expect to see “unequivocal stone artifacts,” he said. He doesn’t think the cobbles found at the Cerutti mastodon site meet that standard.

Rick Potts, the director of the Human Origins Program at the National Museum of Natural History, was more measured in his appraisal. Though he thought the team’s analysis of the bones and stones was thorough, he pointed out a few oddities about the site. For one, it’s unusual that people would use hammer stones to process bones but not any sharp-edged tools, even though that technology had been around for more than a million years. For another, as he pointed out, the mastodon’s molars were also crushed, and there’s no reason he can think of that humans would crack the huge teeth. If those teeth were broken by natural forces, then perhaps the rest of the bones were too.

“It’s not a solid case,” Potts said, “but my goodness it’s a compelling one.”

Briana Pobiner, a paleoanthropologist at NMNH who specializes in studying tooth and tool marks on ancient bones, agreed.

“It’s funny because when I first started reading the paper I didn’t see the extra zero and I thought, ‘oh, 13,000 years, this sounds good,'” Pobiner said. “And then I saw the extra zero and I thought, ‘Holy cow!’”

Pobiner acknowledged that the Cerutti site contains less archaeological evidence than scientists would like before making a claim of this magnitude. But as someone who has spent her whole career looking at scratch marks and breakage patterns on bones, the evidence looks to her like it could be human modification.

Deméré said that he and his colleagues considered possible alternate explanations, but none seemed to fit. Trampling by another large animal would not produce those breakage patterns, they concluded. And environmental forces, like a powerful flood, would have broken the smaller, more fragile bones as well as the big one. Holen added that the rock layer in which the artifacts were found is largely intact — it does not seem to have been subject to disturbances like earthquakes or upheavals that would make the site more difficult to interpret.

Erella Hovers, an archaeologist at Hebrew University in Jerusalem who reviewed the paper and wrote an analysis of it for Nature, said she thought the researchers did a thorough job of ruling out natural causes of the particular breakage patterns. She added that the evidence looks much like archaeological sites she has studied in Africa and the Middle East; if the same site was found in that part of the world, she said, people would have fewer questions about it.

The Cerutti site researchers expect to face scrutiny from his colleagues about the paper. That is partly why they have made 3-D images of the mastodon fossils available online.

“I think the models are important in terms of supporting the paper because they allow anyone to look at this evidence in much the same way the co-authors did,” co-author Adam Rountrey, collection manager at the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, said in a statement. “It’s fine to be skeptical, but look at the evidence and judge for yourself. That’s what we’re trying to encourage by making these models available.”

The scientists also hope that their paper will prompt their colleagues to take a closer look at this period in American history. Perhaps they will find more evidence of hominin presence, bolstering the Cerutti researchers’ claim. Or perhaps the mastodon site is a fluke — or a mistake — and they will find nothing at all.

“The thing to remember is it’s a beginning to a new line of inquiry. It doesn’t solve anything,” said Hovers. “It asks new questions.”

Cometary Impact 10,950 BC: The Alternative Archaeologists Were Right!

Looks like alternative archeaoligists like Graham Hancock, Velikovsky, DS Allen & JB Delair, David Hatcher Childress etc, can feel vindicated.

Wait for the backlash, or for some institution to claim the glory for themselves.

The Telegraph

Ancient stone carvings confirm how comet struck Earth in 10,950BC, sparking the rise of civilisations

 

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/04/21/ancient-stone-carvings-confirm-comet-struck-earth-10950bc-wiping/

 

Ancient stone carvings confirm that a comet struck the Earth around 11,000BC, a devastating event which wiped out woolly mammoths and sparked the rise of civilisations.

Experts at the University of Edinburgh analysed mysterious symbols carved onto stone pillars at Gobekli Tepe in southern Turkey, to find out if they could be linked to constellations.

The markings suggest that a swarm of comet fragments hit Earth at the exact same time that a mini-ice age struck, changing the entire course of human history.

Scientists have speculated for decades that a comet could be behind the sudden fall in temperature during a period known as the Younger Dryas. But recently the theory appeared to have been debunked by new dating of meteor craters in North America where the comet is thought to have struck.

However, when engineers studied animal carvings made on a pillar – known as the vulture stone – at Gobekli Tepe they discovered that the creatures were actually astronomical symbols which represented constellations and the comet.

The idea had been originally put forward by author Graham Hancock in his book Magicians of the Gods.

The Vulture Stone, at Gobekli Tepe
The Vulture Stone, at Gobekli Tepe Credit: Alistair Coombs

Using a computer programme to show where the constellations would have appeared above Turkey thousands of years ago, they were able to pinpoint the comet strike to 10,950BC, the exact time the Younger Dryas begins according to ice core data from Greenland.

The Younger Dryas is viewed as a crucial period for humanity, as it roughly coincides with the emergence of agriculture and the first Neolithic civilisations.

Before the strike, vast areas of wild wheat and barley had allowed nomadic hunters in the Middle East to establish permanent base camps. But the difficult climate conditions following the impact forced communities to come together and work out new ways of maintaining the crops, through watering and selective breeding. Thus farming began, allowing the rise of the first towns.

Edinburgh researchers said the carvings appear to have remained important to the people of Gobekli Tepe for millennia, suggesting that the event and cold climate that followed likely had a very serious impact.

 

Position of the sun and stars on the summer solstice of 10,950BC
Position of the sun and stars on the summer solstice of 10,950BC Credit:  Martin Sweatman and Stellarium

Dr Martin Sweatman, of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering, who led the research, said: “I think this research, along with the recent finding of a widespread platinum anomaly across the North American continent virtually seal the case in favour of (a Younger Dryas comet impact).

“Our work serves to reinforce that physical evidence. What is happening here is the process of paradigm change.

“It appears Göbekli Tepe was, among other things, an observatory for monitoring the night sky.

“One of its pillars seems to have served as a memorial to this devastating event – probably the worst day in history since the end of the ice age.”

Gobekli Tepe, is thought to be the world’s oldest temple site, which dates from around 9,000BC, predating Stonehenge by around 6,000 years.

Researchers believe the images were intended as a record of the cataclysmic event, and that a further carving showing a headless man may indicate human disaster and extensive loss of life. 

Symbolism on the pillars also indicates that the long-term changes in Earth’s rotational axis was recorded at this time using an early form of writing, and that Gobekli Tepe was an observatory for meteors and comets.

The finding also supports a theory that Earth is likely to experience periods when comet strikes are more likely, owing to the planet’s orbit intersecting orbiting rings of comet fragments in space.

But despite the ancient age of the pillars, Dr Sweatman does not believe it is the earliest example of astronomy in the archaeological record.

“Many paleolithic cave paintings and artefacts with similar animal symbols and other repeated symbols suggest astronomy could be very ancient indeed,” he said.

“If you consider that, according to astronomers, this giant comet probably arrived in the inner solar system some 20 to 30 thousand years ago, and it would have been a very visible and dominant feature of the night sky, it is hard to see how ancient people could have ignored this given the likely consequences.”

The research is published in Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry.

1958: Mike Wallace Interview With Donald Keyhoe On UFOs And Censorship

For historical interest and reference. Fascinating interview:

Keyhoe was famously cut off during an interview on television in the early 50’s (referenced in this later interview). The UFO research organisation NICAP, which Keyhoe led, had CIA operatives hidden within the ranks, as the Freedom of Information Act has since revealed. The CIA took a keen interest in UFO groups both as a means of psychological manipulation of public perceptions, and as a handy cover for flights of  clandestine air technology, such as the U2 spyplane and various experimental exotic aircraft. In other words, disinformation.

Keyhoe presents himself as a calm, well spoken man with a thoughtful, logical approach to what was at the time, a very new and perplexing phenomenon.

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