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Caterpillar found to eat shopping bags, suggesting biodegradable solution to plastic pollution

https://phys.org/news/2017-04-caterpillar-bags-biodegradable-solution-plastic.html

Caterpillar found to eat shopping bags, suggesting biodegradable solution to plastic pollution

April 24, 2017

Caterpillar found to eat shopping bags, suggesting biodegradable solution to plastic pollution

Scientists have found that a caterpillar commercially bred for fishing bait has the ability to biodegrade polyethylene: one of the toughest and most used plastics, frequently found clogging up landfill sites in the form of plastic shopping bags.

The wax worm, the larvae of the common insect Galleria mellonella, or greater wax moth, is a scourge of beehives across Europe. In the wild, the worms live as parasites in bee colonies. Wax moths lay their eggs inside hives where the worms hatch and grow on beeswax – hence the name.

A chance discovery occurred when one of the scientific team, Federica Bertocchini, an amateur beekeeper, was removing the parasitic pests from the honeycombs in her hives. The worms were temporarily kept in a typical plastic shopping bag that became riddled with holes.

Bertocchini, from the Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (CSIC), Spain, collaborated with colleagues Paolo Bombelli and Christopher Howe at the University of Cambridge’s Department of Biochemistry to conduct a timed experiment.

Around a hundred wax worms were exposed to a plastic bag from a UK supermarket. Holes started to appear after just 40 minutes, and after 12 hours there was a reduction in plastic mass of 92mg from the bag.

Scientists say that the degradation rate is extremely fast compared to other recent discoveries, such as bacteria reported last year to biodegrade some plastics at a rate of just 0.13mg a day.

Caterpillar found to eat shopping bags, suggesting biodegradable solution to plastic pollution
Plastic biodegraded by 10 worms in 30 minutes. Credit: César Hernández/CSIC

“If a single enzyme is responsible for this chemical process, its reproduction on a large scale using biotechnological methods should be achievable,” said Cambridge’s Paolo Bombelli, first author of the study published today in the journal Current Biology.

“This discovery could be an important tool for helping to get rid of the plastic waste accumulated in and oceans.”

Polyethylene is largely used in packaging, and accounts for 40% of total demand for plastic products across Europe – where up to 38% of plastic is discarded in landfills. People around the world use around a trillion plastic bags every single year.

Generally speaking, plastic is highly resistant to breaking down, and even when it does the smaller pieces choke up ecosystems without degrading. The environmental toll is a heavy one.

Yet nature may provide an answer. The beeswax on which wax worms grow is composed of a highly diverse mixture of lipid compounds: building block molecules of living cells, including fats, oils and some hormones.

While the molecular detail of wax biodegradation requires further investigation, the researchers say it is likely that digesting beeswax and polyethylene involves breaking similar types of chemical bonds.

Caterpillar found to eat shopping bags, suggesting biodegradable solution to plastic pollution
A close-up of wax worm next to biodegraded holes in a polyethylene plastic shopping bag from a UK supermarket as used in the experiment. Credit: Paolo Bombelli

“Wax is a polymer, a sort of ‘natural plastic,’ and has a chemical structure not dissimilar to polyethylene,” said CSIC’s Bertocchini, the study’s lead author.

The researchers conducted spectroscopic analysis to show the in the plastic were breaking. The analysis showed the worms transformed the polyethylene into ethylene glycol, representing un-bonded ‘monomer’ molecules.

To confirm it wasn’t just the chewing mechanism of the caterpillars degrading the plastic, the team mashed up some of the worms and smeared them on polyethylene bags, with similar results.

“The caterpillars are not just eating the plastic without modifying its chemical make-up. We showed that the polymer chains in polyethylene plastic are actually broken by the wax ,” said Bombelli.

“The caterpillar produces something that breaks the chemical bond, perhaps in its salivary glands or a symbiotic bacteria in its gut. The next steps for us will be to try and identify the molecular processes in this reaction and see if we can isolate the enzyme responsible.”

As the molecular details of the process become known, the researchers say it could be used to devise a biotechnological solution on an industrial scale for managing polyethylene waste.

Added Bertocchini: “We are planning to implement this finding into a viable way to get rid of plastic waste, working towards a solution to save our oceans, rivers, and all the environment from the unavoidable consequences of accumulation.”

Explore further: Gut bacteria from a worm can degrade plastic

More information: Current Biology (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.02.060

 

Archaeology shocker: Study claims humans reached the Americas 130,000 years ago

Archaeology shocker: Study claims humans reached the Americas 130,000 years ago

 

Sarah Kaplan

Some 130,000 years ago, scientists say, a mysterious group of ancient people visited the coastline of what is now Southern California.

More than 100,000 years before they were supposed to have arrived in the Americas, these unknown people used five heavy stones to break the bones of a mastodon. They cracked open femurs to suck out the marrow and, using the rocks as hammers, scored deep notches in the bone. When finished, they abandoned the materials in the soft, fine soil; one tusk planted upright in the ground like a single flag in the archaeological record. Then the people vanished.

This is the bold claim put forward by paleontologist Thomas Deméré and his colleagues in a paper published Wednesday in the journal Nature. The researchers say that the scratched-up mastodon fossils and large, chipped stones uncovered during excavation for a San Diego highway more than 20 years ago are evidence of an unknown hominin species, perhaps Homo erectus, Neanderthals, maybe even Homo sapiens.

If Deméré’s analysis is accurate, it would set back the arrival date for hominins in the Americas and suggest that modern humans might not have been the first species to arrive. But the paper has raised skepticism among many researchers who study American prehistory. Several said this is a classic case of an extraordinary claim requiring extraordinary evidence — which they argue the Nature paper doesn’t provide.

“You can’t push human activity in the New World back 100,000 years based on evidence as inherently ambiguous as broken bones and nondescript stones,” said David Meltzer, an archaeologist at Southern Methodist University. “They need to do a better job showing nature could not be responsible for those bones and stones.”

For decades, discussion of early settlement of the Americas has focused on the tail end of the Ice Age. Most archaeologists agree that humans crossed a land bridge from Asia into Alaska sometime after 25,000 years ago, then either walked between ice sheets or took boats down the Pacific coastline to reach the wide open plains of Pleistocene America roughly 15,000 years before present. Though scientists debated the exact timing of this journey, their estimates differed by hundreds or a few thousand years, not tens of thousands.

“It is a bold claim,” Deméré acknowledged, “an order of magnitude older age than has been suggested.” But he asked his colleagues not to dismiss the research out of hand based only on a number.

“This evidence begs for some explanation,” he said, “and this is the explanation we’ve come up with.”

The rocks and mastodon remains were identified in 1992 by paleontologist Richard Cerutti, a colleague of Deméré’s at the San Diego Museum of Natural History. Cerutti was asked to monitor work on a new freeway south of San Diego in case any important fossils were uncovered.

When Cerutti spotted a broken tusk stuck in the soil overturned by an excavator, he called for a halt in activity and summoned Deméré to the site.

“You’ll want to see this,” Deméré recalled Cerutti saying.

The scientists set up a geographic grid system and began carefully excavating several more stones and bones, plotting each new object on their grid to preserve its location. It took several months to uncover every artifact.

“As the site unfolded over that five month period it became more and more exciting and more puzzling at the same time,” Deméré recalled.

San Diego Natural History Museum Paleontologist Don Swanson pointing at rock fragment near a large horizontal mastodon tusk fragment.© San Diego Natural History Museum San Diego Natural History Museum Paleontologist Don Swanson pointing at rock fragment near a large horizontal mastodon tusk fragment.

The biggest find was a partial skeleton from a single American mastodon. Peculiarly, the largest bones were scarred and broken, but more fragile ribs and vertebrae were still intact. Some of the bones seemed to have been arranged deliberately alongside one another. Many bore the spiral fractures that are a signature of ancient people hammering on fresh bone — either to extract marrow for food or break the bone into tools.

The bones were clustered in groups around a few large, heavy stones known as “cobbles.” The size and makeup of these rocks didn’t match the fine-grained surrounding soil. They bore marks you’d expect to see on a hammer and anvil. Scattered around the site were flakes that seem to have been chipped off the cobbles, as though someone had struck the rocks against another solid object. When held up to their source stones, the flakes fit back into them like pieces of a puzzle.

“It was unusual to say the least … and suggested this was a not a typical paleontological site and we should consider the possibility that we had association of extinct megafauna with humans, or at least early human activity,” Deméré said of the findings.

But it was difficult to figure out how old the site was. Any soft tissue in the fossilized bones had long decayed, so scientists couldn’t use radiocarbon dating to determine their age. They attempted to date fossils using the uranium-thorium method, which measures radioactive decay of uranium. But the technique was not very reliable at the time, so the Cerutti mastodon remained an enigma.

More than a decade later, a mutual friend put Deméré in touch with archaeologist Steve Holen. Holen believes that human history in the Americas dates back much farther than the end of the Ice Age, something he acknowledges is a “minority position” in his field. For several years, he has been examining museum collections and new fossil sites in search of ancient bones that look like they were touched by people.

The breaks on the mastodon fossils looked as though they were human-caused, he said. But to make sure, Holen tried to recreate them using a stone hammer the same size as the one found at the Cerutti site and the skeleton of an elephant that had been recently buried.

“The bone was extremely fresh and smelled very bad,” Holen said of that experiment. “I almost wished I wasn’t doing this.” It took all of Holen’s effort — and the help of a younger, stronger colleague — to break the bones. When they succeeded, they recognized the same breakage patterns as the ones found on the fossils. There’s no evidence that anyone hunted or butchered the mastodon for meat, but it definitely seemed to him like some human or human cousin had cracked the bones.

“Once you do the experiment then you really can understand this much better,” Holen said.

The surface of mastodon bone showing half impact notch on a segment of femur.© Tom Deméré, San Diego Natural History Museum The surface of mastodon bone showing half impact notch on a segment of femur.

Next the team reached out to geochronologist James Paces, who retried the now much-improved uranium-thorium dating technique on the bones. He concluded that they are 130,000 years old, give or take 9,400. This date corresponds with the accepted age of the layer of rock in which the bones and cobbles were found.

But it far exceeds any established date for settlement of the Americas. The oldest biological remains from any humans on the continent is a coprolite (fossilized poop) from 14,300 years ago. Studies based on genetic analysis of modern Native Americans suggest that humans didn’t make it over the land bridge that once linked northeast Asia to Alaska until 25,000 years ago.

If the stones and bones really are evidence of people, then who were they? How did they get to this part of the world so long ago? And why haven’t we found other evidence of their presence? Did they die out not long after they arrived?

A boulder discovered at the Cerutti Mastodon site thought to have been used by early humans as a hammerstone.© Tom Deméré, San Diego Natural History Museum A boulder discovered at the Cerutti Mastodon site thought to have been used by early humans as a hammerstone.

Because there are no hominin remains at the site, and rock hammer technology was used by many hominin species, the scientists caution that discussion of the identity of these people is purely speculative. In a supplement to their Nature paper, they say the Cerutti people may have been Neanderthals, Denisovans (a species known only from a few fragments found in a cave in northern Siberia), or members of the species Homo erectus. It seems unlikely that they were Homo sapiens — anatomically modern humans didn’t migrate out of Africa until after 100,000 years ago, according to most estimates.

As for how they got here, Deméré said they may have been able to cross the land bridge before the last ice age, when the planet warmed and sea levels rose. Other species migrated to the Americas in this period, Deméré said, and the hominins may have followed them over.

Otherwise, the first Americans could have used boats to cross the Bering Strait, and then scoot down the Pacific coast — archaeological finds on the Mediterranean island of Crete suggest that hominins were able to cross the sea via boat more than 100,000 years ago.

To some who study American prehistory, this interpretation of the Cerutti site beggars belief. Meltzer called the claim “grandiose.” Donald Grayson, a paleoanthropologist at the University of Washington, noted that history is rife with examples of scientists misinterpreting strange markings on stone as evidence of human activity. He pointed to the Calico Hills site in the Mojave Desert, which the archaeologist Louis Leakey believed contained 200,000-year-old stone tools. Subsequent studies have largely discredited Leakey’s claim — the apparent tools were most likely “geofacts,” natural stone formations that only look like they were crafted by humans.

Some of the fossil bones and rocks found at the Cerutti mastodon site.© San Diego Natural History Museum Some of the fossil bones and rocks found at the Cerutti mastodon site.

“It is one thing to show that broken bones and modified rocks could have been produced by people, which Holen and his colleagues have done,” Grayson said. “It is quite another to show that people, and people alone, could have produced those modifications. This, Holen [has] most certainly not done, making this a very easy claim to dismiss.”

Mike Waters, the director of the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M, also criticized the claim. To convince him that people were in the Americas so much earlier before the first physical evidence of their remains, he would expect to see “unequivocal stone artifacts,” he said. He doesn’t think the cobbles found at the Cerutti mastodon site meet that standard.

Rick Potts, the director of the Human Origins Program at the National Museum of Natural History, was more measured in his appraisal. Though he thought the team’s analysis of the bones and stones was thorough, he pointed out a few oddities about the site. For one, it’s unusual that people would use hammer stones to process bones but not any sharp-edged tools, even though that technology had been around for more than a million years. For another, as he pointed out, the mastodon’s molars were also crushed, and there’s no reason he can think of that humans would crack the huge teeth. If those teeth were broken by natural forces, then perhaps the rest of the bones were too.

“It’s not a solid case,” Potts said, “but my goodness it’s a compelling one.”

Briana Pobiner, a paleoanthropologist at NMNH who specializes in studying tooth and tool marks on ancient bones, agreed.

“It’s funny because when I first started reading the paper I didn’t see the extra zero and I thought, ‘oh, 13,000 years, this sounds good,'” Pobiner said. “And then I saw the extra zero and I thought, ‘Holy cow!’”

Pobiner acknowledged that the Cerutti site contains less archaeological evidence than scientists would like before making a claim of this magnitude. But as someone who has spent her whole career looking at scratch marks and breakage patterns on bones, the evidence looks to her like it could be human modification.

Deméré said that he and his colleagues considered possible alternate explanations, but none seemed to fit. Trampling by another large animal would not produce those breakage patterns, they concluded. And environmental forces, like a powerful flood, would have broken the smaller, more fragile bones as well as the big one. Holen added that the rock layer in which the artifacts were found is largely intact — it does not seem to have been subject to disturbances like earthquakes or upheavals that would make the site more difficult to interpret.

Erella Hovers, an archaeologist at Hebrew University in Jerusalem who reviewed the paper and wrote an analysis of it for Nature, said she thought the researchers did a thorough job of ruling out natural causes of the particular breakage patterns. She added that the evidence looks much like archaeological sites she has studied in Africa and the Middle East; if the same site was found in that part of the world, she said, people would have fewer questions about it.

The Cerutti site researchers expect to face scrutiny from his colleagues about the paper. That is partly why they have made 3-D images of the mastodon fossils available online.

“I think the models are important in terms of supporting the paper because they allow anyone to look at this evidence in much the same way the co-authors did,” co-author Adam Rountrey, collection manager at the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, said in a statement. “It’s fine to be skeptical, but look at the evidence and judge for yourself. That’s what we’re trying to encourage by making these models available.”

The scientists also hope that their paper will prompt their colleagues to take a closer look at this period in American history. Perhaps they will find more evidence of hominin presence, bolstering the Cerutti researchers’ claim. Or perhaps the mastodon site is a fluke — or a mistake — and they will find nothing at all.

“The thing to remember is it’s a beginning to a new line of inquiry. It doesn’t solve anything,” said Hovers. “It asks new questions.”

David Steele Interview; Profound!

Open Source Intelligence vs. Spying Intel A great platform for providing unfiltered, unbiased information throughout society in an effort to return the power back to the people!

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i79VocEpavA

 

Synopsis:

In order to get the word out to a greater audience, Mr Steele has again invited everyone to view another Norway interview.

This one is a bit over an hour and goes extensively into the deep state.

Cometary Impact 10,950 BC: The Alternative Archaeologists Were Right!

Looks like alternative archeaoligists like Graham Hancock, Velikovsky, DS Allen & JB Delair, David Hatcher Childress etc, can feel vindicated.

Wait for the backlash, or for some institution to claim the glory for themselves.

The Telegraph

Ancient stone carvings confirm how comet struck Earth in 10,950BC, sparking the rise of civilisations

 

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/04/21/ancient-stone-carvings-confirm-comet-struck-earth-10950bc-wiping/

 

Ancient stone carvings confirm that a comet struck the Earth around 11,000BC, a devastating event which wiped out woolly mammoths and sparked the rise of civilisations.

Experts at the University of Edinburgh analysed mysterious symbols carved onto stone pillars at Gobekli Tepe in southern Turkey, to find out if they could be linked to constellations.

The markings suggest that a swarm of comet fragments hit Earth at the exact same time that a mini-ice age struck, changing the entire course of human history.

Scientists have speculated for decades that a comet could be behind the sudden fall in temperature during a period known as the Younger Dryas. But recently the theory appeared to have been debunked by new dating of meteor craters in North America where the comet is thought to have struck.

However, when engineers studied animal carvings made on a pillar – known as the vulture stone – at Gobekli Tepe they discovered that the creatures were actually astronomical symbols which represented constellations and the comet.

The idea had been originally put forward by author Graham Hancock in his book Magicians of the Gods.

The Vulture Stone, at Gobekli Tepe
The Vulture Stone, at Gobekli Tepe Credit: Alistair Coombs

Using a computer programme to show where the constellations would have appeared above Turkey thousands of years ago, they were able to pinpoint the comet strike to 10,950BC, the exact time the Younger Dryas begins according to ice core data from Greenland.

The Younger Dryas is viewed as a crucial period for humanity, as it roughly coincides with the emergence of agriculture and the first Neolithic civilisations.

Before the strike, vast areas of wild wheat and barley had allowed nomadic hunters in the Middle East to establish permanent base camps. But the difficult climate conditions following the impact forced communities to come together and work out new ways of maintaining the crops, through watering and selective breeding. Thus farming began, allowing the rise of the first towns.

Edinburgh researchers said the carvings appear to have remained important to the people of Gobekli Tepe for millennia, suggesting that the event and cold climate that followed likely had a very serious impact.

 

Position of the sun and stars on the summer solstice of 10,950BC
Position of the sun and stars on the summer solstice of 10,950BC Credit:  Martin Sweatman and Stellarium

Dr Martin Sweatman, of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering, who led the research, said: “I think this research, along with the recent finding of a widespread platinum anomaly across the North American continent virtually seal the case in favour of (a Younger Dryas comet impact).

“Our work serves to reinforce that physical evidence. What is happening here is the process of paradigm change.

“It appears Göbekli Tepe was, among other things, an observatory for monitoring the night sky.

“One of its pillars seems to have served as a memorial to this devastating event – probably the worst day in history since the end of the ice age.”

Gobekli Tepe, is thought to be the world’s oldest temple site, which dates from around 9,000BC, predating Stonehenge by around 6,000 years.

Researchers believe the images were intended as a record of the cataclysmic event, and that a further carving showing a headless man may indicate human disaster and extensive loss of life. 

Symbolism on the pillars also indicates that the long-term changes in Earth’s rotational axis was recorded at this time using an early form of writing, and that Gobekli Tepe was an observatory for meteors and comets.

The finding also supports a theory that Earth is likely to experience periods when comet strikes are more likely, owing to the planet’s orbit intersecting orbiting rings of comet fragments in space.

But despite the ancient age of the pillars, Dr Sweatman does not believe it is the earliest example of astronomy in the archaeological record.

“Many paleolithic cave paintings and artefacts with similar animal symbols and other repeated symbols suggest astronomy could be very ancient indeed,” he said.

“If you consider that, according to astronomers, this giant comet probably arrived in the inner solar system some 20 to 30 thousand years ago, and it would have been a very visible and dominant feature of the night sky, it is hard to see how ancient people could have ignored this given the likely consequences.”

The research is published in Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry.

CIA Plane Lands In Wellington Ahead Of “Five Eyes” Meeting: More To This Than Meets The “Eyes”?

“Due to specific security requirements we cannot comment further at this time. However, as police have pointed out they are not aware of a visit to Queenstown by a current or former head of state.”

A spokesman for Prime Minister Bill English

Seen the planes and police presence at Harewood Christchurch base a few days back, now it’s shaping up to be an all-star gathering. Right on cue for the big nuclear simulation exercise stateside. I repeat what I’ve already said, that NZ is a prime Elite bolt hole. Is there more to this than just another spy convention? While there is “no confirmation” of any dignitaries outside the spy business coming here, I’m still suspicious. Considering the powder keg geopolitical situation, they could be fleeing the crime scene in preparation for the shit hitting the fan. Just speculation, but it pays to stay alert. Here’s the mainstream report:
An aircraft believed to belong to the CIA landed in Wellington on Saturday morning (file pic).

MAARTEN HOLL/FAIRFAX

An aircraft believed to belong to the CIA landed in Wellington on Saturday morning (file pic).

Secret agents from one of the most powerful spy agencies in the world may have just touched down in the capital.

What looks to be just another private jet parked at Wellington Airport may in fact be carrying a plane-load of spies who are said to be in the country for a secret meeting in Queenstown.

The tail number – five small, black digits on the back of the plane – reveals the private jet belongs to none other than the United States’ Central Intelligence Agency, also known as the CIA.

The aircraft's arrival ties in with a top-secret meeting of the Five Eyes nations in Queenstown.

SCOTT HAMMOND/FAIRFAX NZ

The aircraft’s arrival ties in with a top-secret meeting of the Five Eyes nations in Queenstown.

The plane, with the registration number 10030, was spotted at Wellington Airport on Saturday morning, NewsHub reports.

READ MORE: Leaders from the Five Eyes intelligence network to meet in Queenstown

The aircraft’s arrival ties in with an event in Queenstown, where a top-secret meeting of the Five Eyes nations is being held.

Five Eyes is the name of the global spying alliance of the US, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

Officials from the world’s largest spy network are meeting in Arrowtown, near Queenstown, where a massive security operation is underway.

Government officials are refusing to confirm details or provide names, but police confirmed no former head of state would be visiting, after the rumour mill tipped the visitor could be Barack Obama, with Microsoft founder Bill Gates’ name also put into the mix.

 – Stuff

 

 

Urgent statement by the deputy commander of the DPR Armed Forces, Eduard Basurin.

Much thanks to John De Rothschild at theConTrail.com for the article:

20.04.2017

Urgent statement by the deputy commander of the DPR Armed Forces, Eduard Basurin.

The Nazi Ukraine Army (AFU)continues to aggravate the situation on the contact line in violation of the Minsk Agreements. The ATO command is trying to transfer the conflict into a “hot” phase, committing provocative actions against the DPR People’s Army.

As it became known from a source in the command of the military unit A0456 (Odessa), on the eve of the May holidays, the Ukrainian Nazi Armed Forces, specifically the Ukrainian Junta Navy units as part of one combined brigade of Marines, prepare a plan for active military operations in the Volnovakha and Novoazavsky districts of the former Donetsk region.

According to the plan of the command, on April 23-24, two mobile subversive groups are planned to be deployed in the area of the locality of Shirokino. At the moment, weapons are being prepared for saboteurs.

To conspire the operation of the group, it is planned to use civilian vehicles equipped with mortars.

The main goal of the group is to approach the contact line as close as possible, to conduct a provocative fire on their false positions, and, consequently, justify the beginning of retaliatory strikes on the positions of the DPR Army.

Then, it is planned to launch a large-scale offensive in order to regain control over the territory of the former Donetsk region. The planning of the operation takes place against the background of the raising the degree of the rhetoric of the Nazi Ukrainian authorities representatives and is accompanied by the intensification of propaganda in the media controlled by the Nazi Kiev regime .

Due to the depressing moral and psychological state of the military, the authorities are making attempts to rotate the ATO forces units, hastily «repairing the gaps» in the vanguard of the future offensive.

Recently, the Ukrainian media have spread a statement by Nazi Official Alexander Turchinov on the AFU steady advancement to the Russian border. By the way, soon after this statement, the head of the National Security and Defense Council was hospitalized with an unidentified diagnosis. The politician of the newly baked European power preferred not at home, but in Germany.

In addition, the Defense Minister of the Ukraine Junta , Stepan Poltorak, incessantly informs of building up the tank grouping on the contact line. In addition, the other day Poltorak announced his intention to send over 20 tanks to the ATO zone. It should be noted that all the statements of the Kiev representatives are made against the background of the ceasefire and the withdrawal of weapons. In particular, right after the separation of forces in the former Lugansk region, Poroshenko announced that all tank units were in constant combat readiness and, if necessary, in no time would return to the battlefield.

While newspapers and news agencies of the Independent continue to be full of reports on the conclusion of agreements with ‘friendly countries’ on cooperation in the military sphere, the president of the country extols in London the power of the ‘Ukraine-fighter’ occupying the 8th position in strength in Europe. Most importantly, he said that Kiev was fighting with its ‘own weapons’, without any outside help, but owing to ‘fantastic’ training by British, Canadian, American and European colleagues.

After such statements, it is not clear how the military and political authorities of Ukraine are going to fulfill their promises on a peaceful settlement of the conflict in Donbass. Based on recent actions by politicians and other bosses, it is absolutely clear that the Kiev authorities do not plan to resolve the conflict in Donbass politically. On the contrary, all the facts point to the preparation of the Nazi Ukrainian Armed Forces to unleash a large-scale war in the east of the country.

It can not either be ruled out that this aggravation will be used by Kiev to accuse the DPR and LPR representatives of violating the Minsk Agreements. This is most likely to happen on the eve of the next meeting of the Tripartite Contact Group for the settlement of the situation in Donbass, which, according to the statement of the OSCE Special Representative, Martin Saydik, will be held on April 26.

Source

https://www.google.co.nz/search?num=30&q=Urgent+Statement+From+…’s+Army+Col.+Basurin,+Nazi+Ukraine+Junta+Planning+Full+Scale+Attack+On+May+Day+Holidays+!&gws_rd=cr,ssl&ei=HcD7WK3FB8eh0gS40b_wAw

Government Documentation For Gotham Sheild Found: Simulated Nuclear-EMP Attack

Possibly related to the power outages in the US today? Exercise simulating nuke attack EMP burst, looks like this one is real:

NOTE: That while this is going on stateside, the CIA and FBI directors are holed up in Queenstwon NZ. Coincidence, you think?

Total Chaos: Cyber Attack Fears As MULTIPLE CITIES HIT With Simultaneous Power Grid Failures: Shockwave Of Delays In San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York

Total Chaos: Cyber Attack Fears As MULTIPLE CITIES HIT With Simultaneous Power Grid Failures: Shockwave Of Delays In San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York

Mac Slavo
April 21st, 2017
SHTFplan.com

grid-down-city

The U.S. power grid appears to have been hit with multiple power outages affecting San Francisco, New York and Los Angeles.

Officials report that business, traffic and day-to-day life has come to a standstill in San Francisco, reportedly the worst hit of the three major cities currently experiencing outages.

Power companies in all three regions have yet to elaborate on the cause, though a fire at a substation was the original reason given by San Francisco officials.

A series of subsequent power outages in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and New York City left commuters stranded and traffic backed up on Friday morning. Although the outages occurred around the same time, there is as of yet no evidence that they were connected by anything more than coincidence.

The first outage occurred at around 7:20 a.m. in New York, when the power went down at the 7th Avenue and 53rd Street subway station, which sent a shockwave of significant delays out from the hub and into the rest of the subway system. By 11:30 a.m. the city’s MTA confirmed that generators were running again in the station, although the New York subways were set to run delayed into the afternoon.

Later in the morning, power outages were reported in Los Angeles International Airport, as well as in several other areas around the city.

Via : Inverse

The San Francisco Fire Department was responding to more than 100 calls for service in the Financial District and beyond, including 20 elevators with people stuck inside, but reported no immediate injuries. Everywhere, sirens blared as engines maneuvered along streets jammed with traffic.

Traffic lights were out at scores of intersections, and cars were backing up on downtown streets as drivers grew frustrated and honked at each other.

Via: SF Gate

The cause of the outage has not yet been made clear, though given the current geo-political climate it is not out of the question to suggest a cyber attack could be to blame. It has also been suggested that the current outages could be the result of a secretive nuclear/EMP drill by the federal government.

As we have previously reported, the entire national power grid has been mapped by adversaries of the United States and it is believed that sleep trojans or malware may exist within the computer systems that maintain the grid.

In a 2016 report it was noted that our entire way of life has been left vulnerable to saboteurs who could cause cascading blackouts across the United States for days or weeks at a time:

It isn’t just EMPs and natural disaster that poses a threat to the grid, but there is also the potential for attacks on individual power substations in the vast network of decentralized and largely unguarded power grid chain. A U.S. government study established that there would be “major, extended blackouts if more than three key substations were destroyed.”

Whether by criminals, looters, terrorists, gangs or pranksters, it would take very little to bring down the present system, and there is currently very little the system can do to protect against this wide open threat.

Whether the current outages are the result of a targeted infrastructure cyber attack or simply a coincidence, most Americans think the impossible can’t happen, as The Prepper’s Blueprint author Tess Pennington highlights, a grid-down scenario won’t just be a minor inconvenience if it goes on for more than a day or two:

Consider, for a moment, how drastically your life would change without the continuous flow of energy the grid delivers. While manageable during a short-term disaster, losing access to the following critical elements of our just-in-time society would wreak havoc on the system.

  • Challenges or shut downs of business commerce
  • Breakdown of our basic infrastructure: communications, mass transportation, supply chains
  • Inability to access money via atm machines
  • Payroll service interruptions
  • Interruptions in public facilities – schools, workplaces may close, and public gatherings.
  • Inability to have access to clean drinking water

Full report: When the Grid Goes Down, You Better Be Ready!

It is for this reason that we have long encouraged Americans to prepare for this potentially devastating scenario by considering emergency food reserves, clean water reserves and even home defense strategies in the event of a widespread outage.

The majority of Americans have about 3 days worth of food in their pantry.

Imagine for a moment what Day 4 might look like in any major city that goes dark.

This exclusive clip from American Blackout shows what an extended outage might look like:

Prepare for the worst, because this is one scenario you do not want to face.