Category: Environment

USGS: “Early 20th Century Earthquakes May Have Been Man Made.

Site Icon -Small Early 20th Century Earthquakes in Los Angeles Area Might Have Been Man-Made

Image result for california oil fields

Release Date: NOVEMBER 1, 2016

A new study from the USGS suggests that some early 20th century earthquakes in southern California might have been induced (man-made) by past practices that were used by the oil and gas industry.

A new study from the USGS suggests that some early 20th century earthquakes in southern California might have been induced (man-made) by past practices that were used by the oil and gas industry.

In the new study, scientists evaluated the likely cause of several significant earthquakes within the Los Angeles Basin between 1900 and 1933, together with consideration of available oil industry records over this period.

They found that several damaging earthquakes, including a 1929 event near Whittier, California (estimated magnitude 5) and the 1933 Long Beach earthquake (magnitude 6.4) might have been induced by oil and/or gas production during the early decades of the Los Angeles-area oil boom. During the early decades of the oil boom, withdrawal of oil was not balanced by injection of fluids, in some cases leading to dramatic ground subsidence, and potentially perturbing the sub-surface stress field on nearby faults.

In the middle of the 20th century, so-called water-flooding techniques were increasingly employed to compensate for oil withdrawal and to increase production of fields that were becoming depleted. Because industry practices have changed, the results of this study do not necessarily imply a high likelihood of induced earthquakes at the present time.

“It has been widely assumed that induced earthquakes do not contribute significantly to hazard in regions west of the Rocky Mountains, but our research suggests that damaging induced earthquakes might have occurred in the past, ” said Susan Hough, USGS seismologist. “Our study further suggests that the rate of natural tectonic earthquakes in the Los Angeles basin for this time period might have been lower than previously estimated.”

Earthquake rates have increased sharply in recent years in some parts of the United States, including in Oklahoma, where earthquakes were formerly infrequent. Extensive past research has supported the conclusion that much of this increase is due to disposal of wastewater into deep geologic formations.

The study, “Potentially induced earthquakes during the early 20th century in the Los Angeles Basin,” was published Nov. 1 in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.

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Phone: 703-648-4460

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Kaikoura Quake: “A Trillion To One”

Image result for kaikoura earthquake photosSite Icon -Small

From Jeffrey ‘Goober’ Wefferson, via Rose at theCONtrail.com:

Here’s the audio from Jeff’s blog:


The odds are a trillion to one that the recent…and on-going…Kaikoura quakes on New Zealand’s south island…were not natural, but the result of scientifically premeditated geo-physical warfare, the main-stay of the global war-machine (or should I say ‘defense industry’?)’s ‘revolution in military affairs.’
Sure, sure…earthquakes DO happen naturally. New Zealand is bisected by a major fault line and Kaikoura is right on it. And the moon wasn’t only full, it was a SUPER MOON! To say that this was done on purpose by people is no more than some of that conspiracy theory, many will say.
Well, to those, all I can say is ‘Go and pop another beer and watch some footie…and be sure not to look at any FAKE NEWS OK?’ Leave the critical thinking to those who don’t have brain damage! Are you sure the quakes weren’t caused by ‘climate change’???
Astronomer Carl Sagan observed that “We live in a society exquisitely dependent on science and technology, in which hardly anyone knows anything about science and technology.” That the military in general has developed what most would consider to be ‘science fiction’ level weapons systems is a testament to Sagan’s critique, as is his untimely death from leukemia contracted from his 100+ personal demonstrations against nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site.
 
These quakes, however, didn’t surprise me in the least. I never ventured a ‘formal prediction’ but the possibility did cross my mind a number of time as I have been monitoring the naval ‘war game’ Exercise Mahi Tangaroa happening this week in two Auckland harbours, as well as providing in-depth coverage of the recent RIMPAC naval war-games in Hawai’i which killed an enormous amount of marine life and helped to destroy the coral reefs with high-powered microwave transmissions coupled with electromagnetic ‘pollution’ from weaponized systems that ‘protect’ ship hulls from corrosion. Marine biologist Terry Lilley and chemical engineer Stewart Simonson have made enormous contributions to our understanding of this covert environmental warfare, even greater burdens on the health of Mother Ocean and her family of life.
another quake just hit Blenheim – still quaking http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us10007eq8#executive
Trails are insane here on the other coast.

Australia: 8,500 Hospitalised From “Thunderstorm Asthma”

Site Icon -Smallhttp://thecontrail.com/video/news-upate-8-500-hospitalized-from-thunderstorm-asthma-killing?xg_source=activity

UPDATE: Death toll now six:

https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/world/melbournes-thunderstorm-asthma-death-toll-rises-six

http://barfblog.com/tags/thunderstorm-asthma/

Standing Rock: Sioux Leader Responds With Ominous Warning

 Image result for sioux indians standing rock

Sioux Tribe Leader Responds to Army Corps Eviction Letter With Ominous Warning to US Gov’t

In response to the altogether shocking announcement the Army Corps of Engineers will be evicting water protectors from the Oceti Sakowin and any camps north of the Cannonball River, the Cheyenne River Tribe — co-litigants in a lawsuit seeking to halt the Dakota Access Pipeline — sharply condemned the plan as “a direct and irresponsible threat to the water protectors.”

On Friday — unironically, the day after Thanksgiving — Army Corps District Commander Col. John W. Henderson sent a letter to Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Chairman Dave Archambault II and Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe Chairman Harold Frazier announcing the closure of Corps-managed land to all “public use and access” on December 5.

Henderson’s letter and the Army Corps’ plan is an affront to dignity and logic in multiple ways — most notably, the reason cited for clearing the peaceful camps.

“This decision is necessary to protect the general public from the violent confrontations between protestors and law enforcement officials that have occurred in this area, and to prevent death, illness, or serious injury to inhabitants of encampments due to the harsh North Dakota winter conditions,” he wrote.

All confrontations with officers thus far only occurred after police escalated the situation — deploying brute and wildly excessive force against unarmed water protectors — including an incident last Sunday in which a tribal elder nearly died after suffering cardiac arrest, twice, Vanessa Dundon’s sight might be lost thanks to a tear gas canister police launched at her head, and Sophia Wilansky is having her entire arm reconstructed after a concussion grenade tore it apart.

Further, in that same clash, the Morton County Sheriff’s Department conjured the specter of 1960s racism in spraying the crowd of 400 with a fire hose in temperatures hovering in the low 20s Fahrenheit — two days after voicing concern water protectors could suffer hypothermia in the camps if they stayed put through winter.

Henderson oh-so graciously explained a “free speech zone” has been demarcated south of the Cannonball River, and requested Frazier to “encourage members of [the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe], as well as any non-members who support you who are located in the encampments north of the Cannonball River on Corps lands to immediately and peacefully move to the free speech zone. . . .”

Frazier justifiably balked at this request in his response to Henderson, in which he copied in President Obama and other relevant Washington officials, saying,

“The area north of the Cannonball River is both the ancestral homeland of the Lakota people and inside the boundaries of the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty, a treaty that has not been abrogated and law that governs us all. The best of these lands have already been unjustly taken and flooded by the Corps in the disastrous Pick-Sloane legislation. We will no longer allow our rights as a Tribe or as indigenous people as a whole to continue to be eroded.

“This decision, coming on the heels of the Thanksgiving holiday, is not only disrespectful, but continues the cycle of racism and oppression imposed on our people and our lands throughout history.”

He continues:

“We ask that the Corps and the United States reconsider this decision.  Treaties are the supreme law of the land and the Constitution of the United States demands that they be respected.  Removal from Sioux Treaty lands should be the choice of the Oceti Sakowin Camp north of the Cannonball River, not the United States, which has been violating our rights for hundreds of years.”

Archambault issued a press release shortly following the first reports of the Army Corps’ plans, also addressing centuries of horrendous mistreatment of Indigenous peoples by the U.S. government, stating, in part:

“It is both unfortunate and ironic that this announcement comes the day after this country celebrates Thanksgiving – a historic exchange of goodwill between Native Americans and the first immigrants from Europe. Although the news is saddening, it is not at all surprising given the last 500 years of the treatment of our people. We have suffered much, but we still have hope that the President will act on his commitment to close the chapter of broken promises to our people and especially our children.”

To set the record straight and allay unfounded but oft-perpetuated rumors to the contrary, it must be noted Archambault reiterated the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe did, indeed, attempt to voice its concerns when plans for Dakota Access were first laid out:

“We ask that all everyone who can appeal to President Obama and the Army Corps of Engineers to consider the future of our people and rescind all permits and deny the easement to cross the Missouri River just north of our Reservation and straight through our treaty lands. When Dakota Access Pipeline chose this route, they did not consider our strong opposition. Our concerns were clearly articulated directly to them in a meeting on Sept. 30, 2014. We have released that audio recording from our council meeting where DAPL and the ND Public Service Commission came to us with this route.”

Indeed, continued brutality and barbarism by the Morton County Sheriff’s Department and multiple in- and out-of-state law enforcement agencies coordinating to defend construction of the enormously controversial pipeline has been likened to the slaughter at Wounded Knee 125 years ago on virtually the same lands.

International outrage over police treatment of largely peaceful water protectors led human rights observers to visit several encampments to monitor events.

But the news of mass eviction comes as a total shock to the Standing Rock Sioux and Cheyenne River Sioux and thousands of supporters around the world and at the camps — and is conspicuously timed to occur one day before a sizable delegation of U.S. military veterans is slated to arrive to defend water protectors.

First Nations peoples from around the United States and Indigenous peoples from every corner of the globe, as well as countless supporters, had planned to ride out the bitter winter and camp indefinitely on the open plains of North Dakota until construction of the pipeline can be halted for good.

Frazier keenly notes of the ill-begotten Army Corps plans:

“[Y]our letter dangerously and profoundly misunderstands the basic function and status of a tribal government and its elected leaders. I am the chief executive of a sovereign nation that is comprised of individual citizens with physical territory within the exterior boundaries the State of South Dakota.  Under the laws of the United States, my government lacks jurisdiction at Cannonball; but more importantly, I no more control the acts and behaviors of Cheyenne River Sioux Tribal members or non-member water protectors at the Cannonball site than you do, Col. Henderson.”

As the government of the United States would be well advised to consider, Frazier further explains individuals have the right to peaceably assemble “in prayerful protest against the cultural and environmental atrocity” and that he would not be so bold as to use the authority consensually granted by citizens to infringe on their human or constitutional rights.

Several details in Henderson’s letter announcing the eviction indicate the potential for the move to unravel atrociously at the expense of innocent water protectors facing the literal U.S. Army, as Frazier points out:

“Perhaps the most terrifying aspect of your letter is your acknowledgement of the stark reality that that the confrontation between our peaceful water protectors and law enforcement could result in death or serious injury, a fact demonstrated by the brutal attack on Sophia Wilansky by North Dakota police last week. But in the very next paragraph you guarantee that further confrontations will occur by promising that these peaceful people will be trespassing on closed areas and you threaten that they will do so ‘at their own risk’ and will ‘assume any and all corresponding liabilities for their unlawful presence and occupation of such lands.

“I take your letter as issuing a direct and irresponsible threat to the water protectors. It appears to further empower the militarized police force that has been brutalizing and terrorizing our water protectors while imposing the blame and the risk on unarmed peaceful people. We have pleaded for the protection of the United States. Your letter makes a grave and dangerous mistake. Federal efforts to de-escalate the violence should be aimed at the wrongdoers, not at our peaceful people.”

When the Army Corps of Engineers arranges to forcefully remove water protectors from the Oceti Sakowin Camp and others, they will almost certainly be met with prayer and civil disobedience, but not firearms or other weapons. Strict rules disallowing violence and aggressive tactics by anyone wishing to camp in support of the Standing Rock Sioux have been in place since the camps were first erected — and that policy has not changed.

However, as Frazier wisely explains, individuals often act as they choose — on either side of the blue government line. Without knowledge of the logistics for eviction, how, precisely, the government and law enforcement plan such a massive, systematic, and forceful plot remains to be seen December 5th.

Army Corps evicting everyone from Standing Rock on December 5 by The Daily Haze on Scribd

World’s Biggest Seismic Testing Ship Parked on NZ Faultline

Site Icon -SmallWorld’s Biggest Seismic Testing “Blast” Ship – Amazon Warrior – Parked on top of New Zealand Fault Line

Amazon Warrior

[Note- this article was approaching 5000 views at 5pm today – it now has 1,400 odd at 5.37. We literally have government shills/ spies monitoring the site and manipulating the views- via WordPress.  It is much easier to pass it off as online ‘conspiracy theories’ the less attention it appears to have. That is the new reality we are living in]

If you were planning to do seismic blasting off the coast of a Country, the best time to do it would be with the full moon wouldn’t it? So that people only discuss that as the possible reason.

The World’s biggest seismic blasting ship the Amazon Warrior was photographed off Rarangi Beach  in Cloudy Bay last night. Right on top of a major fault line

Green MP Steffan Browning reported it on his Facebook page hours before the giant quakes.

The post has been shared over 400 times at time of this post:

https://www.facebook.com/steffanbrowningmp

Amazon Warrior
The ship was met with protests when it arrived on the 13th…

http://www.stuff.co.nz/environment/86406089/oil-protesters-throw-un…

There are trillions of dollars worth of Oil and Gas around NZ’s shores:

http://www.nzherald.co.nz/northern-advocate/news/article.cfm?c_id=1…

It has now been well reported (in the real / social media) that the US State department had advanced knowledge of the Christchurch Quakes – with John Key saying they were “man made” earthquakes. Surely the oil company banker would know?  Plus the usual dose of foreign spies with extra passports on scene – as there always is with most of these events……read more below:

#

Kaikoura was clearly the target – now destroyed, and that basin is full of the precious oil for the foreign bankers and the only thing stopping them was the people of Kaikoura- now homeless and to be relocated by NZ navy ship.

http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/political/288317/council-backs-away-f…

And guess we now know why John Kerry was making a short notice / unexplained trip to NZ right in the middle of a fierce US ‘elitecon’….

http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/political/317972/evidence-of-global-w…

US disaster relief ‘FEMA’ was in Christchurch the week before the Christchurch earthquake also. Strange how they seem to know when the quakes will strike isn’t it.

Surely John Key, Simon Bridges and their fellow foreign banker mafia should now be rounded up for questioning. People have died. Or perhaps Kiwis should just be thankful they haven’t been carpet bombed, like the same “club”  has done to Iraq, Libya and Syria for their resources. And Afghanistan for its opium of course.

The semi retarded Government sponsored “experts” are all over the media today explaining that there is no way such ships have the technology to trigger such a large quake. As if they would have access to accurate info on the latest military technology.

See more here

A big thankyou to Saru G at the CONtrail for bringing this to my attention.

http://thecontrail.com/profiles/blogs/world-s-biggest-seismic-testing-blast-ship-amazon-warrior-parked-

 

Is The Sixth Mass Exctinction Event Underway?

 

Note: Those familiar with UN Agenda 30 may notice a thing or two in this item. I leave it to the reader to decide what’s going on here……Site Icon -Small

 http://www.i24news.tv/en/news/international/128655-161027-scientists-say-earth-has-entered-sixth-mass-extinction-event
On current trends, stocks of global wildlife could plunge two-thirds by 2020, an annual decline of two percent

Nearly three-fifths of all animals with a backbone — fish, birds, amphibians, reptiles and mammals — have been wiped out since 1970 by human appetites and activity, according to a grim study released Thursday.

On current trends, stocks of global wildlife could plunge two-thirds by 2020, an annual decline of two percent, conservation group WWF and the Zoological Society of London warned in their joint biennial Living Planet report.

There is no mystery as to why: our own ever-expanding species — which has more than doubled in number since 1960 to 7.4 billion — is simply eating, crowding and poisoning its planetary co-habitants out of existence.

The findings are based on long-term monitoring of some 3,700 vertebrate species spread across more than 14,000 distinct populations around the globe.

Scientists have tracked changes in the size of those populations, not how many species are threatened with extinction.

But the news on that front is not good either: experts now agree that Earth has entered only the sixth “mass extinction event” — when species vanish at least 1,000 faster than usual — in the last half-billion years.

“Wildlife is disappearing within our lifetimes at an unprecedented rate,” said Marco Lambertini, director general of WWF International.

Aditya Singh (AFP/File)

Aditya Singh (AFP/File)
“Indigenous territory is increasingly being included in protected wildlife conservation areas, which have nearly doubled over the past two decades, from nearly 3.5 million square miles in 1980 to six million square kilometers in 2000”

We should not be deceived into thinking humanity can do without, he added.

“Biodiversity forms the foundation of healthy forests, rivers and oceans. Take away the species, and these ecosystems collapse, along with clean air, water, food and climate services they provide us.”

A dawning awareness — in government, business and society as a whole — that a healthy environment is not a luxury but the “foundation of future human development” is reason for optimism, he suggested in an interview with AFP.

“This is really revolutionary,” he said, pointing to a global pact to rein in climate change going into force next week, and a newly launched set of UN-backed Sustainable Development Goals running through 2030.

“We have succeeded in making a strong business case for climate,” Lambertini said.

“Now we have to make an equally strong business case for conservation of natural systems.”

That is likely to be a hard sell.

Global warming has measurable impacts that have already threatened tens of millions of people, and even then it took nearly thirty years to strike a universal deal.

With biodiversity and ecosystems, the negative impacts are “less direct and less tangible on a global scale,” Lambertini said.

‘Wake-up call’

The five main drivers of wildlife decline — in order of importance — are habitat loss, overconsumption, pollution, invasive species and disease, according to the report.

On top of that, climate change is poised to become a major threat in the coming decades, with some animals already in decline due to rising temperatures and changing weather patterns.

“This should be a wake-up call to marshal efforts to promote the recovery of these populations,” said Ken Norris, director of science at the Zoological Society of London.

Freshwater environments such as lakes, rivers and wetlands have fared the worst, with an 81 percent decline in average population size between 1970 and 2012 for 881 species monitored.

Freshwater covers less than one percent of Earth’s surface, but is home to nearly 10 percent of all of the planet’s known species.

Marine and land vertebrates have suffered at about the same rate — with populations dropping 36 and 38 percent respectively over the same period — but for different reasons.

Factory fishing has emptied the seas of 40 percent of sea life, and nine out of ten fisheries in the world are either over- or full-fished today.

Pollution and climate change are also wreaking havoc, especially along coastlines.

WWF AUSTRALIA (WWF AUSTRALIA/AFP)

WWF AUSTRALIA (WWF AUSTRALIA/AFP)
“Photograph released by WWF on 1 March 2016, showing Lyle Vail, director of the Lizard Island Research Station examining the extensive coral bleaching near Queensland, Australia”

Head of science and policy at WWF Dr Mike Barrett told the BBC that “We do see particularly strong declines in the freshwater environment – for freshwater species alone, the decline stands at 81% since 1970. This is related to the way water is used and taken out of fresh water systems, and also the fragmentation of freshwater systems through dam building, for example.”

On land, the big threats are loss of land to agriculture and cities, followed by rampant hunting, mostly for food but also for commerce — much of it in endangered species.

“It’s pretty clear under ‘business as usual’ we will see continued declines in these wildlife populations. But I think now we’ve reached a point where there isn’t really any excuse to let this carry on,” said Dr Barrett.

“We know what the causes are and we know the scale of the impact that humans are having on nature and on wildlife populations – it really is now down to us to act.”

The majority of Earth’s land area has today been re-sculpted by human hands.

“We have thought of the ecosystems on the planet as infinite, as if we could extract resources forever without any constraint,” Lambertini said.

“Now science is telling us very clearly that this is not true.”

Too many gaps

While the declines are worry some, Stuart Pimm, professor of conservation ecology at Duke University in the United States says that the report doesn’t show the whole picture.

“There are some numbers [in the report] that are sensible, but there are some numbers that are very, very sketchy,” he said in an interview with the BBC.

“For example, if you look at where the data comes from, not surprisingly, it is massively skewed towards western Europe.

Inti Ocon (AFP/File)

Inti Ocon (AFP/File)
“A red-eyed green frog (Agalychnis callidryases) photographed at the Montibelli private wildlife reserve, in the municipality of Ticuantepe, 15km south of Managua, on September 9, 2016”

“When you go elsewhere, not only do the data become far fewer, but in practice they become much, much sketchier… there is almost nothing from South America, from tropical Africa, there is not much from the tropics, period. Any time you are trying to mix stuff like that, it is is very very hard to know what the numbers mean,” he continued, adding “They’re trying to pull this stuff in a blender and spew out a single number…. It’s flawed.”

Dr Robin Freeman, Head of the Indicators and Assessments Unit at the Zoological Society of London, defended the report.

“It’s completely true that in some regions and in some groups, like tropical amphibians for example, we do have a lack of data. But that’s because there is a lack of data,” he told the BBC.

“We’re confident that the method we are using is the best method to present an overall estimate of population decline.

“It’s entirely possible that species that aren’t being monitored as effectively may be doing much worse – but I’d be very surprised if they were doing much better than we observed,” Dr Freeman adds.

(Staff with AFP)

Hurricane Matthew: Geoengineered?

Site Icon -SmallHurricane Matthew will continue to affect millions along the southeastern United States coast from Florida to Georgia and the Carolinas with flooding, power outages and damaging winds into this weekend.

The curved path along the coast will create a fire hose effect of high winds, heavy rain and storm surge as the eye wall of the hurricane moves northward.

Matthew re-strengthened to a Category 4 hurricane on Thursday morning, but has since weakened to a Category 3 hurricane.

Track Matthew on radar as the hurricane moves northward.

Preparations should be rushed to completion and people should heed any additional evacuation orders as they are issued.

The governors of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina declared states of emergency ahead of Matthew earlier this week.

Evacuation orders have been given for more than 2 million people from the Florida barrier islands to coastal Georgia and South Carolina.

RELATED:
AccuWeather Hurricane Center: The latest statistics on Hurricane Matthew
Death toll climbs in Caribbean after Hurricane Matthew battered Haiti, Cuba and Bahamas
Follow the latest Hurricane Matthew reports in the US

The center of Matthew will pass dangerously close to Cape Canaveral to near Jacksonville, Florida, through Friday morning. Landfall by a hurricane along this stretch of coast is extremely rare.

“Since the mid-1800s, when reliable records have been kept, no Category 4 storm or greater has ever made landfall along the upper Atlantic coast of Florida,” according to AccuWeather Hurricane Expert Dan Kottlowski.

The track of Matthew will then roughly parallel the U.S. southern Atlantic coast through Saturday night.

Such a track will put millions in harm’s way along the coast from impacts ranging storm surge flooding, flash and urban flooding, flying debris and structural damage to weakly-constructed dwellings.

Along the immediate Atlantic coast from central Florida through Georgia, gusts can reach or exceed 100 mph. Winds this strong can cause significant property damage and widespread power outages.

The surf will be too dangerous for bathers, boarders and boaters along the southern Atlantic coast.

Small craft should remain secured in port and cruise, and freight interests should consider rerouting their trips to avoid the monstrous seas that will develop. Offshore, seas can top 25 feet at the height of the storm.

Airline delays and flight cancellations will mount. Some smaller regional airports may close for a time.

A general swath of 6-12 inches of rain will occur along the coast from central Florida northward to southern North Carolina. Locally higher amounts are possible.

As Atlantic Ocean water is pushed inland, a storm surge (total inundation) of 6-10 feet will occur along low-lying areas of the coast from central Florida to South Carolina.

The combination of heavy rainfall and storm surge can cause major flooding in areas from Melbourne, Daytona Beach and Jacksonville, Florida, to Brunswick and Savannah, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina.

Sustained tropical storm-force winds will extend westward to Interstate 95 from Florida to South Carolina and part of North Carolina. A few gusts to hurricane force can occur in this same zone from Florida to Georgia.

Farther west, damaging and disruptive impacts will occur 50 miles or more inland, even though the eye will hug the Atlantic coast.

Cities as far west as Orlando, Florida, and Waycross, Georgia, can experience locally damaging winds and sporadic power outages.

As a result, travel along much of I-95 in the southern U.S. will be hazardous at the height of the storm. People who must travel north and south in the region are encouraged to take a more western route.

From Tallahassee to about Naples, Florida, dry air will be pulled down the Florida Peninsula and will greatly limit impact from Matthew.

“A few gusts to tropical storm force can even occur along the west coast of Florida,” Kottlowski said.

Overall, travel from central South Carolina to central Georgia and in western Florida will be safer.

http://www.accuweather.com/en/weather-news/hurricane-matthew-to-unleash-dangerous-flooding-damaging-winds-from-florida-to-south-north-carolina/60515144

yep, it even looks like a skull…..!

Top Secret US Nuclear “City Under The Ice” Revealed

A top-secret cold war US military project and the toxic waste it conceals, which had been thought buried forever beneath the Greenland ice cap, are likely to be uncovered by rising temperatures within decades, scientists have warned

Nuclear waste tank

Camp Century was excavated by the US army engineering corps in 1959 around 200km (124 miles) inland from the coast of Greenland, which was then part of Denmark.

Powered, remarkably, by the world’s first mobile nuclear generator and known as “the city under the ice”, the camp’s three-kilometre network of tunnels, eight metres beneath the ice, housed laboratories, a shop, hospital, cinema, chapel and accommodation for up to 200 soldiers.

Officially its personnel were stationed there to test Arctic construction methods and carry out research. Scientists based at the camp did, indeed, drill the first ice core samples ever used to study climate, Colgan said, obtaining data still cited today.

But in reality, the camp served as cover for something altogether different: a project so immense and so secret, that not even the Danish government was informed of its existence.

“They thought it would never be exposed,” said William Colgan, a climate and glacier scientist from the Lassonde school of engineering at Toronto’s York University, the lead author of the study. “Back then, in the 60s, the term global warming had not even been coined. But the climate is changing, and the question now is whether what’s down there is going to stay down there.”

The study suggests it isn’t.

Project Iceworm, presented to the US chiefs of staff in 1960, aimed to use Camp Century’s frozen tunnels to test the feasibility of a huge launch site under the ice, close enough to fire nuclear missiles directly at the Soviet Union.

At the height of the cold war, as the US and the USSR were engaged in a terrifying standoff over Soviet missile deployment in Cuba, the US army was considering the construction of a vast subterranean extension of Camp Century.

Around 4,000km system of icy underground tunnels and chambers extending over an area around three times the size of Denmark were to have housed 600 ballistic missiles, in clusters 6km apart, trained on Moscow and its satellites.

Eventually the engineers realised Iceworm would not work: the constantly moving ice was too unstable an environment and would have deformed – perhaps even collapsed – the tunnels.

From 1964 Camp Century was used only intermittently, and three years later it was abandoned altogether, the departing soldiers taking with them the reaction chamber of the nuclear generator.

But they left the rest of the camp’s infrastructure – and its biological, chemical and radioactive waste – where it was, on the assumption it would be “preserved for eternity” by the perpetually accumulating snow and ice.

Thus far their assumption has proven correct: up to 12 metres deep at the time it was abandoned, the ice covering Camp Century has since thickened to around 35 metres and will continue to deepen for a while yet.

But climate change looks certain to reverse that process, Colgan and his six-strong team, from Canadian, US and European universities, said in their report, published last month in Geophysical Research Letters.

Greenland’s temperatures broke new records this spring and summer, hitting 24C (75F) in the capital, Nuuk, in June – a figure that shocked meteorologists so much they had to re-check their measurements.

Between 2003 and 2010 the ice that covers much of the island melted twice as fast as during the whole of the 20th century. This year it began melting a month earlier than usual.

The researchers studied US army documents and drawings to work out how deep the camp and its waste – estimated to include 200,000 litres of diesel fuel, similar quantities of waste water, and unknown amounts of radioactive coolant and toxic organic pollutants such as PCBs – were buried.

Then they ran regional and global climate change simulations to work out how much longer they will stay there. Based on the “business as usual” climate change scenario, Colgan said, snowfall will continue to be greater than ice melt for a few more decades. “But after that, melt will be greater than snow. Every year, another layer of ice will be removed. Our estimate is that by 2090, the exposure will be irreversible. It could happen sooner if the magnitude of climate change accelerates.”

Once that starts to happen, the question of who is responsible for the clear-up – already the subject of discussion – will become more pressing, the report said, presenting “an entirely new form of political dispute resulting from climate change”.

With no established agreement on the question, the report says the “multinational, multi-generational” problem posed by Camp Century and its waste could become a source of tension between the US, Greenland and Denmark.

Although Denmark allowed the US to build Camp Century and other bases on Greenland in a 1951 agreement, it is not clear how much it was told about the work being done there, or the waste left behind. Complicating matters further, Greenland became largely self-governing in 1979.

Vittus Qujaukitsoq, Greenland’s foreign minister, said he was “concerned” about the camp’s future and is determined to establish responsibility, while his Danish counterpart, Kristian Jensen, has said the issue was being examined “in close contact with Greenland”.

The Pentagon has said it “acknowledges the reality of climate change and the risk it poses” for Greenland, adding that the US government has pledged to “work with the Danish government and the Greenland authorities to settle questions of mutual security”.

Source: MSN News.

Site Icon -SmallI’m sure you’ve noticed the emphasis on Global Warming in this item, something the most of you will be sceptical about I’m sure. What’s the agenda here?

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