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Desert Farm Grows 17,000 Tons Of Food Without Soil, Pesticides, Fossil Fuels, or Even Groundwater

Thanks to Rose at theConTrail.com for the heads-up!

Desert Farm Grows 17,000 Tons Of Food Without Soil, Pesticides, Fossil Fuels, or Even Groundwater

Innovations that will make the human race thrive on Earth, saving its finite resources from extinction, are something we should embrace without a second thought.

We get our food from plants and animals. As we grow in numbers, so too does the global demand for food. Currently, activists are fighting the spread of Genetically Modified Food (GMO). The argument for GMO proponents has been that the world is running out of its resources, and hence, we need to find ways and means to sustain us. According to them, GMOs will ensure that we maintain our food production level. This argument might sound convincing on first hearing, however, deeper probing of GMOs has revealed that the harm it causes far outweighs the good it does.

desertfarm-1

We, therefore, cannot accept GMOs. It will bring a plethora of health problems to the populations who consume them, in the long-term. We must find other alternatives to boost our food production.

Thankfully, some innovators are coming up with sound and efficient ways by which we can grow our food – without relying on our finite resources.

A start-up, called Sundrop Farms, has developed high technology greenhouse facilities that use a number of solutions to grow crops with less reliance on finite natural resources, than conventional greenhouse production. Sundrop Farms has offices in London in the United Kingdom, and Adelaide, in southern Australia.

desertfarm-2

To grow crops; land, water, and energy are needed. These resources are finite. But with Sundrop Farms, these resources can be reinvented the other way around. In 2010, Sundrop Farms opened its first pilot facility in Port Augusta, South Australia.  Located in the middle of a desert, it would have been impossible to grow food in the area using a tradition farming method. But Sundrop is changing the game. It is growing crops in the desert through a latest innovative means.  It is combining seawater and sunlight to grow food in the middle of the desert.

With this, climate change, biotech company land grabs, drought, floods, and pestilence are no longer a concern for Sundrop Farms.

Sundrop is now using coconut husks, 23,000 mirrors to reflect solar power, and desalinated water on its 20-hectare farm to grow food at the Port Augusta farm. It works like a magic, but it isn’t such a mystical charm. It is through deep thinking that brought this innovation to our reality.

Rest Here:

https://realfarmacy.com/desert-farm/

‘Nemesis’ Shock report claims sun’s EVIL TWIN could be behind major extinction events

THE sun could have been born with an ‘evil twin’ responsible for some of the deadliest extinction events in Earth’s history.

Scientists have been working on a hypothesis which suggests that the majority of stars are formed in a binary system, meaning there would be more than one star.

Researchers from the UC Berkeley and the Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory have been studying a dust cloud in the Perseus constellation, and concluded that the ‘born together’ theory is probably correct.

UC Berkeley astronomer Steven Stahler said: “We ran a series of statistical models to see if we could account for the relative populations of young single stars and binaries of all separations in the Perseus molecular cloud, and the only model that could reproduce the data was one in which all stars form initially as wide binaries.”

The research, as part of the VLA nascent disk and multiplicity (VANDAM) survey, shows twin stars separated by 500 astronomical units or over are ‘Class 0’.

asteroidGETTY

The star could be responsible for major extinction events

One astronomical unit is the distance between the Sun and the Earth.

Class 1 star systems are closer, at about 200 AU from each other.

The giant ball of fire at the centre of our solar system would be no exception, researchers say, and that it’s twin, which has been dubbed ‘Nemesis’, could be responsible for mass-extinction events throughout history.

Our sun would likely be part of a Class 0 system, which would explain why we can’t see its twin.

The ‘born together’ theory could fit with a devastating hypothesis suggested 23 years ago by another UC Berkley astronomer, Richard Muller.

Mr Muller came up with the idea there was a red-dwarf star on an egg-shaped orbit which travels from our solar system, into the depths of space and back again every 27 million years, with its gravitational pull bringing back the likes of asteroid.

As the other star travels through our solar system, asteroids clash with planets. This, Mr Fuller says, could be the reason why there are extinction events every 27 million years – including the one which wiped out the dinosaurs.

Mr Stahler says this could be the case, but that Nemesis is likely gone by now.

He said: “We are saying, yes, there probably was a Nemesis, a long time ago.”

https://www.express.co.uk/news/science/817084/Nemesis-EVIL-TWIN-major-extinction-event-sun-star

The Nemesis theory has been around for a while, so the MSM’s “shock” claim may be a bit OTT (Even inspired a couple of popular songs). Of course “Nemesis” has never been found, hence the revised claim that our “evil twin” sun has since departed the solar system. So does that mean the end of mass extinction events? Is that what these scientists are saying? No doubt Nibiru believers will disagree (Nibiru has been “imminent”  for an awfully long time now, fuelling my scepticism!). Personally I’d say this is one of many valid theories about the mechanism for mass extinction, and we aren’t out of the woods by any means.

Martin H.

 

The “entire foundation of the seed system in Africa” may now be in Monsanto’s hands.

 

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Tanzania#/media/File:Tanzanian_farmers.jpg

Farmers in Arusha region, Tanzania. Credit: Fanny Schertzer

In exchange for developmental assistance, the Tanzanian government has amended legislation to enforce protection of intellectual property rights and facilitate land access for commercial investors, like big agriculture companies Monsanto and Syngenta. The accordance was sparked by the formation of the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition (NAFSN) at the 2012 G8 summit.

Unfortunately, certain stipulations of NAFSN agreements are serving to play into government corruption, disparage traditional ways of life and make it easier for big agriculture to prey on lesser developed countries. This is now the case in Tanzania, where efforts to preserve sustainable small farming and local economy are being derailed by the complicated and scary new shift.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Tanzania#/media/File:Tengeru_market.jpg

Tengeru market, Tanzania. Credit: Fanny Schertzer

Michael Farrelly of the Tanzanian organic farming movement (TOAM) explains

“If you buy seeds from Syngenta or Monsanto under the new legislation, they will retain the intellectual property rights. If you save seeds from your first harvest, you can use them only on your own piece of land for non-commercial purposes. You’re not allowed to share them…you cannot sell them for sure. But that’s the entire foundation of the seed system in Africa”.

If Tanzanian farmers are convicted of illegally selling or trading patented seeds, they could receive a prison sentence of more than 12 years, a fine of over €205,300, or both. “That’s an amount that a Tanzanian farmer cannot even start to imagine. The average wage is still less than 2 US dollars a day”, says Janet Maro, leader of Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania.

According to the U.N.’s Farm and Agriculture Organization (FAO) figures, currently, over 80 percent of the food in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia is produced by small-scale farmers. Across the continent, efforts have been made to fight off the advances made by Monsanto, in order to preserve tradition, protect land and avoid becoming dependent on big corporations. Earlier this year, the Indian government started promoting the use of indigenous seed and simultaneously publicizing Monsanto’s illegally profiting on toxic Bt cotton seed.

Monsanto is working its way towards global domination with their genetically-modified seeds and health and environment damaging chemicals, insisting their methods are the only way to keep up with the growing demand for food. By creating a monopoly on seed, putting farmers in debt, and bribing governments to back off, Monsanto will ultimately destroy biodiversity entirely and control the world food supply. 

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Tanzania#/media/File:School_kids_in_Tanzania.jpg

Read More: http://www.trueactivist.com/nafsn-outlaws-traditional-seed-trading-…

Thanks to Saru G at the Con Trail

Exposed: the Nazi roots of the European Union, an Intelligence Briefing by Jon Rappoport

Nazi EU

Jun7

Exposed: the Nazi roots of the European Union

World War 2 continued by other means

by Jon Rappoport

June 7, 2017

This is an intelligence briefing. Here I present the bare bones of what has been happening before our eyes…if we would see it.

Once upon a time, there was an industrial combine in Nazi Germany called IG Farben. It was the largest chemical/pharmaceutical octopus in the world. It owned companies, and it had favorable business agreements with companies from England to Central America to Japan.

The author of The Devil’s Chemists, Josiah DuBois, traveled to Guatemala, on a fact-finding mission, in the early days of World War 2, and returned with the comment that, as far as he could tell, Guatemala was “a wholly owned subsidiary of Farben.”

The pharmaceutical empire was and is one of the major forces behind the European Union (EU). It is no accident that these drug corporations wield such power. They aren’t only involved in controlling the medical cartel; they are political planners.

This is how and why Big Pharma fits so closely with what is loosely referred to as the New World Order. The aim of enrolling every human in a cradle-to-grave system of disease diagnosis and toxic drug treatment has a larger purpose: to debilitate, to weaken populations.

This is a political goal. It facilitates control.

IG Farben’s main component companies, at the outbreak of World War 2, were Bayer, BASF, and Hoechst. They were chemical and drug companies. Farben put Hitler over the top in Germany as head of State, and the war was designed to lead to a united Europe that would be dominated by the Farben nexus.

The loss of the war didn’t derail that plan. It was shifted into an economic blueprint, which became, eventually, the European Union.

The European Commission’s first president was Walter Hallstein, the Nazi lawyer who, during the war, had been in charge of post-war legal planning for the new Europe.

As the Rath Foundation reports: In 1939, on the brink of the war, Hallstein had stated, “The creation of the New Law [of the Nazis] is ONLY the task of the law-makers!”

In 1957, with his reputation sanitized, Hallstein spoke the words in this manner: “The European Commission has full and unlimited power for all decisions related to the architecture of this European community.”

Post-war, IG Farben was broken up into separate companies, but those companies (Bayer, Hoechst, and BASF) came roaring back, attaining new profit highs.

I refer you to the explosive book, The Nazi Roots of the Brussels EU, by Paul Anthony Taylor, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Dr. Matthias Rath, and August Kowalczyk. You can also read it at relay-of-life.com. It is a dagger in the heart of the EU.

At the Rath Foundation, you can also read Joseph Borkin’s classic, “The Crime and Punishment of IG Farben.”

In 1992, I was deeply engaged in researching the specific devastating effects of medical drugs. Eventually, I concluded that, at the highest levels of power, these drugs weren’t destructive by accident. They were intended to cause harm. This was covert chemical warfare against the population of the planet. The Rockefeller-Standard Oil-Farben connection was a primary piece of the puzzle.

It was, of course, Rockefeller (and Carnegie) power that had forced the birth of pharmaceutical medicine in America, with the publication of the 1910 Flexner Report. The Report was used to excoriate and marginalize Chiropractic, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, and other forms of traditional natural practice, in favor of what would become the modern juggernaut of drug-based treatment.

In an article about the FDA, “Medical Murder in the Matrix,” I point out the fact that this federal agency has permitted at least 100,000 deaths of Americans, per year, from the direct effects of drugs it, the FDA, has certified as safe. (See, for example, JAMA, July 26, 2000, ‘Is US Health Really the Best in the World,’ Dr. Barbara Starfield.)

The FDA knows these death figures. “Unintended” and “accidental” can no longer be applied to this ongoing holocaust.

The pharmaceutical industry itself also knows those death figures.

To understand the dimensions and history of the ongoing chemical warfare against the population, in the form of medical drugs (and of course pesticides), one must factor in the original octopus, IG Farben.

World War 2 never ended. It simply shifted its strategies.

In any fascist system, the bulk of the people working inside the system, including scientists, refuse to believe the evidence of what is happening before their own eyes. They insist they are doing good. They believe they are on the right side. They see greater top-down control as necessary and correct. They adduce “reasonable” explanations for inflicted harm and death.

World War 2 is still underway. The battleground has been changed, and the means are far cleverer.

Sun Tzu wrote: “Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting… The best victory is when the opponent surrenders of its own accord before there are any actual hostilities…It is best to win without fighting.”

This is what has been happening: invisible warfare.

https://jonrappoport.wordpress.com/2017/06/07/exposed-the-nazi-roots-of-the-european-union-2/

Image result for Nazi EU


DID A SPY SATELLITE JUST VISIT THE ISS?

Source: http://spaceweather.com/

DID A SPY SATELLITE JUST VISIT THE ISS? On May 1st at Cape Canaveral, SpaceX launched a classified satellite (USA 276) for the US National Reconnaissance Office. Watching the spysat go into orbit, analysts around the world quickly realized something odd. The orbit of USA 276 was similar to that of the International Space Station and could theoretically make close approaches to the orbiting outpost.

On June 3rd, that’s exactly what happened. “USA 276 made a close approach and effectively circled the ISS,” reports Marco Langbroek of Leiden, the Netherlands.  He prepared this diagram showing the circumstances of the encounter:

Amateur satellite watchers have been tracking USA 276 since late May, and their observations have resulted in ever-improving estimates of the satellite’s orbit.  “With the latest data included, we can establish the moment of closest approach as 3 June 2017, 14:01:52 UT. It happened in daylight over the southern Atlantic north of the Falklands, near 43o.75 S, 45o.45 W, with a miss distance of only 6.4 ± 2 km.”

In the diagram above, the brick-colored box has dimensions of  4 x 4 x 10 km.  Whenever an object looks like it is going to pass through that box, ISS mission controllers evaluate the possibility of a collision avoidance maneuver. “USA 276 remained just outside the 4 x 4 x 10 km box at closest approach,” notes Langbroek.  “As a result, collision avoidance maneuvers were not required.”


USA 276 looped around the ISS, according to an analysis by Langbroek

Why is an American spy satellite buzzing the ISS? Maybe it’s a chance encounter. Senior satellite analyst Ted Molczan has published arguments for and against that possibility. “I am inclined to believe that the close conjunctions between USA 276 and ISS are intentional,” he says.

Molczan points out that USA 276 might be visiting the ISS to test Raven–a technology demonstration project on the ISS researchers are using to develop spacecraft autopilot systems.  Raven has visible, infrared, and lidar sensors that can track incoming spacecraft, feeding the data to an onboard processor for decision-making about rendezvous and docking.

“I imagine that USA 276 could add to the Raven data set as follows,” speculates Molczan. “If it can rendezvous, then it could keep station for long periods, during which it could change its attitude to present the sensors with a variety of views, under a variety of lighting conditions. The total data collected could potentially far exceed that from the other visiting spacecraft.”

If USA 276 does return to the ISS, observers will probably know about it. Langbroek has photographed the spysat in the night sky and it is visible to the unaided eye, like a dim 3rd magnitude star. Interested observers can get local flyby times from Heaven’s Above or N2YO.

No Longer a Conspiracy Theory: Elite Openly Paying to Ingest the Blood of the Young

What was once talk of conspiracy theorists is now hitting the mainstream as the country’s elite line up to pay thousands of dollars to ingest the blood of the young. They have no problem admitting it either.

Matt Agorist, The Free Thought Project
Waking Times Media

Once the talk of conspiracy theorists — the rich ingesting the blood of the young to foster longevity — is now a reality and an actual business in the United States. Not only is it a business but billionaires are actually admitting their interest in it.

“I’m looking into parabiosis stuff, which I think is really interesting. This is where they did the young blood into older mice and they found that had a massive rejuvenating effect,” Peter Thiel, the billionaire co-founder of PayPal and adviser to Donald Trump told Inc. magazine. “I think there are a lot of these things that have been strangely under-explored.”

But it’s no longer an experiment with just mice. The startup company by Jesse Karmazin, Ambrosia, is doing this with humans, and the rich are lining up to get the blood of the young.

As Vanity Fair reports, Ambrosia, which buys its blood from blood banks, now has about 100 paying customers. Some are Silicon Valley technologists, like Thiel, though Karmazin stressed that tech types aren’t Ambrosia’s only clients and that anyone over 35 is eligible for its transfusions.


As The Free Thought Project reported in January, a study published in Science and Nature Medicine revealed that transfusing young mouse blood into old mice can actually prevent the symptoms of aging. This groundbreaking discovery could lead to medical breakthroughs and the development of new medicines. However, a report from the Vice health news outlet “Tonic” has pointed out far more sinister applications for this knowledge.

 

It was suggested in the report that aging elites are using the blood of young people as a type of youth serum. Now, we know that they actually are using it.

A similar claim was made by journalist Jeff Bercovici last year, after he conducted several interviews with Silicon Valley aristocrats including Peter Thiel, and learned about this transfusion procedure called “parabiosis,” where the blood of young people is used to prevent aging.

“There are widespread rumors in Silicon Valley, where life-extension science is a popular obsession, that various wealthy individuals from the tech world have already begun practicing parabiosis, spending tens of thousands of dollars for the procedures and young-person-blood, and repeating the exercise several times a year,” Bercovici reported.

In his article, Bercovici also expressed concerns about a developing black market for young people’s blood.

While there is certainly nothing wrong with willing young adults selling their blood to the elite, the underlying theme of this practice has strong roots in the occult.

In most modern cultures, mass murder and human sacrifice still takes place out in the open under the cover of warfare, while many argue that cannibalism also still takes place but behind closed doors.

It is only in the past few hundred years that the practice of cannibalism among royals has not been publicized. In Europe, around the time of the American Revolution “corpse medicine” was very popular among the ruling class, Charles II even brewed his own.

Dr Richard Sugg of Durham University has conducted extensive research into the practice of corpse medicine among the royalty.

“The human body has been widely used as a therapeutic agent with the most popular treatments involving flesh, bone or blood. Cannibalism was found not only in the New World, as often believed, but also in Europe,” Sugg said.

“One thing we are rarely taught at school yet is evidenced in literary and historic texts of the time is this: James I refused corpse medicine; Charles II made his own corpse medicine; and Charles I was made into corpse medicine. Along with Charles II, eminent users or prescribers included Francis I, Elizabeth I’s surgeon John Banister, Elizabeth Grey, Countess of Kent, Robert Boyle, Thomas Willis, William III, and Queen Mary,” he added.

If this wasn’t strange enough, the current royal family of England claims to be direct descendants of Prince Vlad III Dracula of Wallachia (modern Romania). This was the sick and depraved ruler, Vlad the Impaler, who was known as a butcher and who eventually became the inspiration for the most famous vampire stories in history.

Aside from the gruesome historical and occult background of such practices, there is a lack of data that suggests the process even works. Despite Karmazin’s claims that “young blood is causing changes that appear to make the aging process reverse,” scientists have yet to identify a link between blood transfusions from the young and any tangible health benefits.

“There‘s just no clinical evidence [that the treatment will be beneficial], and you‘re basically abusing people‘s trust and the public excitement around this,” Stanford University neuroscientist Tony Wyss-Coray, who conducted a 2014 study of young blood plasma in mice, told Science magazine last summer, as reported by Vanity Fair.


This article (No Longer a Conspiracy Theory: Elite Openly Paying to Ingest the Blood of the Young) was originally created and published by The Free Thought Project and is re-posted here with permission

Nano Tech, Geoengineering & The Coming Space Fence With Elana Freeland

June 8, 2017

By Suzanne Maher (byebyeblesky)

Nano Tech, Geoengineering & The Coming Space Fence With Elana Freeland

Josh Steffler and Greg Hill from Freedom Free For All, interview author/researcher Elana Freeland about the subjects in her upcoming book;  Under and Ionized Sky: From Chemtrails to Space Fence Lockdown.

They begin the interview discussing the normalization of the geoengineering programs and the advent of Dr. David Keith’s upcoming weather balloon experiment in Tucson, Arizona.  The public will always be told that these various experiments/technology benefit the human race and will save us from global warming.  Rarely if ever, do they use the term  “weapon”, or discuss the very heavy military involvement in the weather programs.

Various space fence technologies are discussed; pulsar based navigation systems to test on space stations, self replicating 3D printers which  they say could build moon bases to fight global warming, all the while continuing to placate the public that this technology is “good for us”.

Elana goes on to describe the changes in our atmosphere  and how it has become ionized or “battery ready” to conduct the military’s war games.  Our clouds have very little moisture at this stage they are now plasma, which is made from heat and chemicals (gas/fire state).  Plasmas are able to generate electro-magnetic forces.

The control of the lower atmosphere and near earth orbit is the objective, while the powers that be continue to sell the public on the wonderful technologies of wireless devices.

Rockets which emit alumina oxide and lithium will settle around the earth’s equator and create a circle much like Saturn.  This will further amplify the space fence lockdown and surveillance of every single human being on the planet.

Time to brush up on truth…..The Space Fence is Here.

Related:
https://uncensored.co.nz/2017/06/05/revealed-nasa-discovers-protective-man-made-bubble-surrounding-earth/

Age Of Humanity Pushed Back By 100,000 Years, say Mainstream Scientists: New Moroccan Finds

https://theconversation.com/new-moroccan-fossils-suggest-humans-lived-and-evolved-across-africa-100-000-years-earlier-than-we-thought-78826

The earliest known existence of modern humans, or Homo sapiens, was previously dated to be around 200,000 years ago. It’s a view supported by genetic analysis and dated Homo sapiens fossils (Omo Kibish, estimated age 195,000 years, and Herto, estimated age 160,000 years), both found in modern-day Ethiopia, East Africa.

But new research, published today in two Nature papers, offers a fresh perspective. The latest studies suggest that Homo sapiens spread across the entire African continent more than 100,000 years earlier than previously thought.

This evidence pushes back the origins of our species to 300,000 years ago, and supports the idea that important changes in our biology and behaviour had already taken place across most of Africa by that time.

View looking south of the Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) site. The remaining deposits and several people excavating them are visible in the centre. At the time the site was occupied by early hominins, it would have been a cave, but the covering rock and much sediment were removed by work at the site in the 1960s. Shannon McPherron, MPI EVA Leipzig, CC BY-SA

Our work focused on samples collected at the archaeological site Jebel Irhoud in Morocco. It’s a place that is well known for hominin fossils – that is, bones from early humans – first excavated in the 1960s.

However, the interpretation of the first fossils and identification of their age was compromised previously, due to uncertainty about the geological dating of the sediment layers in which the remains had been found.

More than 40 years later, in 2004, an international team of scientists reopened the excavation. They discovered 16 new Homo sapiens fossils and a large number of Middle Stone Age artefacts. Now in 2017 we’re able to report on these remains thanks to improved dating techniques.

The new analysis proposes a revised version of the evolutionary history of modern humans that involves the entire African continent, and long before the “out-of-Africa” spread of Homo sapiens to other continents (dated at around 100,000 years ago).

Jebel Irhoud is the richest African Middle Stone Age site associated with the earliest known representative of our species.

Bones with modern and ancient features

The fossil remains excavated included numerous skulls and jawbones, long bones such as femur (from the leg) and humerus (from the arm), and teeth of several individuals. They reveal a mixture of modern human and more archaic, or ancient, features.

Of particular note is the slim, “gracile” face seen in living humans, which is also present in Jebel Irhoud specimens. Compared with the more robust face and elongated skull of Neanderthals or older hominins, the faces of Jebel Irhoud specimens are slender, relatively short, and sit under a rounder braincase (the part of the skull in which the brain sits).

However, while tomographic scans (which create 3D images through digital sectioning) reveal that the facial shape in the fossil samples is practically indistinguishable from humans nowadays, there are differences in the skull structure. In particular, the structure of the cranium, or skull bone, is different.

Composite reconstruction of the earliest known Homo sapiens fossils from Jebel Irhoud (Morocco) based on micro computed tomographic scans of multiple original fossils. Dated to 300,000 years ago these early Homo sapiens already have a modern-looking face that falls within the variation of humans living today. However, the archaic-looking virtual imprint of the braincase (blue) indicates that brain shape, and possibly brain function, evolved within the Homo sapiens lineage. Credit: Philipp Gunz, MPI EVA Leipzig.

Compared with modern humans, in the Jebel Irhoud specimens we see a more elongated shape of the braincase, plus elongated temporal bones (on the sides of the skull, forming the temple), flatter parietal bones (along the sides and top of the skull) and different occipital shape (at the rear of the skull). This results in a longer and lower braincase.

Anatomically, this analysis places the 300,000-year-old Jebel Irhoud Homo sapiens somewhere between Homo erectus and African archaic Middle Pleistocene hominins. In this way it challenges the hypothesis that Homo sapiens derived from a later intermediate species that lead to the emergence of both the modern human and Neanderthal lineages.

These differences have implications for our understanding of Homo sapiens evolution. They suggest that our facial shape was established early in our history, whereas certain cognitive functions may have appeared later with the evolution of the Homo sapiens lineage and modifications of the braincase.

The first of our kind. Two views of the Irhoud 10 face. Several reconstructions of the second hominin face discovered at the Irhoud site can be proposed. All these reconstructions sit within the variability of extant, anatomically modern humans within the limits of anatomical constraints. Modern conditions for the facial skeleton were, therefore, already reached 300,000 years ago in the earliest forms of Homo sapiens known to date. Sarah Freidline, MPI EVA Leipzig, CC BY-SA

How we dated the Jebel Irhoud samples

In addition to the fossils, stone artefacts found at the Jebel Irhoud site consisted of Middle Stone Age material of Levallois technology (a distinct method of creating stone tools), with a high proportion of retouched tools, especially pointed forms.

Materials from Jebel Irhoud were accurately dated using two distinct techniques.

Thermoluminescence (TL), which works by measuring the irradiation dose received from the surrounding sediment since the material was last exposed to heat or fire, was applied to the stone artefacts.

Techniques known as Coupled Uranium-Series and Electron Spin Resonance (together referred to as US-ESR) were applied to the fossil remains directly. By calculating the diffusion of natural elements (uranium and thorium) into the dental tissues as fossilisation occurred over time, combined with the amount of surrounding radiation from the sediment the enamel crystal has been exposed to, we are able to work out the burial time of the remains.

Photo of Irhoud 3 teeth embedded in the jawbone, and used for the US-ESR direct dating of the fossil. A fragment of enamel is carefully removed from the tooth using natural cracks to be measured in the spectrometer. After all measurements are complete, the piece of enamel can be replaced to its original position minimising the visual impact of the analyses and making the dating virtually non-destructive. Rainer Grün, RSES, ANU, Australia, Author provided

While TL established clearly a chronology for the sediment layers which contained the hominin fossil remains, the US-ESR dates gave a direct age of one of the Jebel Irhoud jawbones (Irhoud 3 mandible). This was possible through new high-resolution radioactivity measurements of the geological context and important methodological improvements which allowed us to understand the impact of irradiation onto the tooth enamel crystal structure.

Both dating of the jaw bone and the dating of the stone artefacts gave us an age of 300,000 years.

A complex human journey

The new find is consistent with a picture of complex, Africa-wide origin of Homo sapiens.

The observed skull shapes and calculated ages of the bones and tools have implications for interpreting other human-like fossils found in Africa. The enigmatic partial skull of Florisbad from South Africa is also a very important Middle Stone age sample, and presents a mix of modern and ancient features.

Whether Florisbad should be classified as Homo heidelbergensis or Homo helmei has been a subject of prolonged debate. But with the anatomical features observed in Jebel Irhoud specimen, Florisbad skull can be more securely described as an early Homo sapiens form.

This discovery is also interesting in light of the newly dated Homo naledi from South Africa. This species, which survived until 250,000 years ago, overlaps in time with the Jebel Irhoud specimens. As Homo naledi represents a different branch of the genus Homo (not a direct ancestor to Homo sapiens), this is evidence that more archaic forms of hominins coexisted with the early representative of our species.

Similarly, Homo erectus Salé – also discovered in Morocco, not far from Jebel Irhoud – dates back to 250,000 years ago and might have coexisted with the early form of Homo sapiens, although the identification and age of the Salé specimen remains highly debated.

More than ever, as humans our complex evolutionary journey to end up as the lone surviving hominid species appears to be anything but linear. With African archaic Middle Pleistocene hominins overlapping in time with the Jebel Irhoud specimens, our discovery advocates for a complex African-wide evolutionary history of Homo sapiens. This new evidence adds more detail to the debate around the birthplace not only for our species, but also for the entire genus homo.

The famous drawing of a linear and simplistic evolution from ape-like individual morphing to an upright modern human is anything but accurate.


This work was performed by teams of scientists from around the world, including those in Australia, Germany, USA, Morocco, France, UK and Italy.

We acknowledge resources from AusSMC in preparing this article.