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Category: Editor’s Choice

Satanic Fashion Show Inside a Church at London Fashion Week

Source: vigilant citizen

Published: September 22, 2017

Turkish designer Dilara Findikoglu’s presented her Spring/Summer 2018 collection at London Fashion Week and it was nothing less than a satanic Black Mass. Indeed, the event took place at the altar of St Andrew Church in London and incorporated heavy occult and satanic symbolism. In short, the event summed up everything the fashion world is truly about.

While Dilara Findikoglu is said to an “up-and-coming rebel of the fashion world”, she’s perfectly in line with the industry’s philosophy. She’s not rebelling at all, she’s doing what exactly the type of stuff “they” want her to do.

For this reason, celebrities such as Rihanna, FKA Twigs, and Grimes wear seen wearing Findikoglu’s creations.

Her latest fashion show featured artist Brooke Candy (her videos are full of MK imagery) and drag artist Violet Chachki.

Brooke Candy walks down the runway. For this event, the Church was transformed into an occult temple. More precisely: A Masonic lodge.

The backdrop is basically a mish-mash of Masonic-inspired imagery. On each side are the Masonic twin pillars. Between the pillars is the letter G inside an inverted pentagram. Underneath it is the all-seeing eye inside a hexagram. There is also the Masonic square and compass in there. To top it off, the runway was a checkerboard pattern. Here’s a classic Masonic painting for comparison.

A Masonic emblematic chart.

In this heavily occult context, the models were dressed and arranged with a plethora of symbols. Of course, this had to be combined with the current agenda of androgyny and blurring of the genders.

This model is wearing a bride’s dress, complete with a white veil. On her face is drawn a sigil.

A sigil is an inscribed or painted symbol considered to have magical power. The term has usually referred the pictorial signature of a demon or other entity and is used in ceremonial magic. The particular sigil on the model’s forehead is strongly reminiscent to the Sigil of Lucifer.

A pendant containing the Sigil of Lucifer (also known as the Seal of Satan).

In short, the model is basically a “bride of Satan”.

Drag artist Violet Chachki wore a very red outfit … and some devil horns. That’s happening inside a church.

Historically, a Black Mass is a ritual characterized by the inversion of the Traditional Latin Mass celebrated by the Roman Catholic Church and the desecration of Christian objects for Satanic purposes. The fact that models walk around a Church wearing devil horns recalls the concept of Black Mass.

This jolly looking person walks around with a couple of horns made of hair. Also, a sigil is drawn on the model’s face.
This model has a big Eye of Horus drawn on her face. This signals us that this event was “sanctified” by the occult elite.
There’s some punk rock influence. But mostly, there’s some one-eye sign influence.

On the left, is the symbol of the Skull & Bones – the elite secret society.

Early logo of the Skull & Bones.
This dress is all about the Hermetic concept of duality (also exemplified by the checkerboard pattern floor).
This vampire guy has a sigil on his forehead. On his cloak appears to be a fallen angel. Lucifer was a fallen angel.
This model is wearing a ritualistic red dress with a big pentagram drawn on her face. Most models are turned into magical objects as if they were part of a magical ritual.
Other than the inverted cross drawn on her face, this has her left leg and left breast exposed. Also, large thingie hangs around her neck. Does this remind you something?
This is a picture of a Masonic initiation candidate. Following ritual, his left breast and left leg are exposed while wearing a noose around his neck.
This fella has a couple of inverted crosses on his shirt. 

This fashion show is a perfect representation of the mindset of fashion industry today. It is not simply about “clothing” or “fashion”, it is about ritualistic events, an artistic celebration of the satanic mindset of the occult elite.

As they walk around with magical sigils, occult symbols and other ritualistic props all over their bodies, the models are turned into magically charged objects, turning this “fashion show” – which took place inside a Church – into a satanic ritual with high magical potency.

https://www.blacklistednews.com/Satanic_Fashion_Show_Inside_a_Church_at_London_Fashion_Week/60937/0/38/38/Y/M.html

Couple saw ’40 UFOs’ hovering over British beach before major military operation

AN ELDERLY couple have told of the bizarre sight of 30 to 40 UFOs hovering outside their home the night before a major military operation unfolded.

By Jon Austin
PUBLISHED: 17:17, Fri, Sep 15, 2017 | UPDATED: 18:10, Fri, Sep 15, 2017

The husband and wife, aged in their 80s, who have not been named claim to have witnessed the phenomenal sight over Wilsthorpe Beach in East Yorkshire.

UFO military

 

Paranormal investigator Paul Sinclair tells their story in a new book he is penning about the Wilsthorpe Incident, which has been branded Britain’s new Roswell due to the mysterious military activity seemingly connected to UFO sightings.
The couple’s bizarre claims concern the night of September 14 2009 at 11pm.
They lived in one of 30 flats that overlook the sea at Wilsthorpe.
The pair decided to go to bed, however, as the woman went to turn off the lights, she saw a glow outside.
Mr Sinclair said “something told her to go outside” before she opened the front door and looked out to sea where she was amazed to see several glowing UFOs above the coast.
Mr Sinclair said she described them as 15-feet long and eight-feet wide “spaceships over the sea”.
He said: “She said there was a huge circle of boomerang-shaped craft.

“She said there were loads – 30 to 40 and the sea below was bubbling, banging and crashing.
“They were silent, but there was electricity going into the sea.”

“Ron (her husband) said it was like a blue and white Christmas tree over the sea. He was frightened and left after ten minutes and put his head under the pillow for the night.
“But, she told me she was not frightened and knew she was never going to see anything like it again in her life.”
She stayed for around half and hour before the objects began to “lift out of the circle in pairs at a 45 degree angle until just two were left which shot off straight up.”
Yesterday, Express.co.uk exclusively revealed how the couple said the following day the beach was swamped with military.
Two Chinook helicopters full of RAF personnel landed at the beach by the remote hamlet.
Mr Sinclair also spoke with a man who runs a bait shop at Bridlington Harbour, who told him his bait diggers had seen “triangle” craft enter the sea in 2009 over the same period.
Mr Sinclair also spoke with a man who runs a bait shop at Bridlington Harbour, who told him his bait diggers had seen “triangle” craft enter the sea in 2009 over the same period.

He said two of his bait diggers had been on Wilsthorpe Beach the day the couple saw the military operation.
They told of seeing “triangles entering the sea” and later “being surrounded by soldiers.”
Separately a man working on a boat at Blythe Park boat compound also confirmed the military presence, he said.
Mr Sinclair submitted a Freedom of Information request to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) to find out why the operation took place on September 15.
However, the response he eventually received, said it was just a “routine military exercise” and few other details were provided.
The reply said “no live ammunition was used” and “any explosions heard were controlled detonations of simulated ammunitions.”
The response added that it was “one of a number of regular exercises” as part of work to defend the UK, and new locations would often be used with landowners’ consent.
Mr Sinclair continues to investigate the case and is trying to obtain historic coastguard reports from the period.

He believes it is connected to a high level of reported UFO activity along a 25-mile stretch of the East Yorkshire and North Yorkshire coast from Brandesburton in East Yorkshire to Scarborough, North Yorkshire, between May and September 2009.
High levels of military aircraft flying low and circling near his home in Bridlington, East Yorkshire, were also recorded that September.
Mr Sinclair said the case did not yet prove a UFO presence, but: “I think the military arrived because of the objects.”
In a post on his Truth Proof Facebook page about the case, he wrote: “Nothing found can prove with any certainty the UFOs were over the sea as an elderly couple claim, or that the black triangles entered the sea in September 2009 like the bait diggers described.
“All I can do is stack the evidence for and against, either side of the scale.”
Some of the sightings have been detailed in Mr Sinclair’s first book – Truth-Proof: The Truth That Leaves No Proof, which is available on Amazon.

https://www.express.co.uk/news/weird/854745/UFO-aliens-Wilsthorp-Incident-40-UFOs-RAF

Killing Joke: Implant

Fantastic Lyrics and mindblowing animation.

More music-with-a-message from Jaz Coleman and Killing Joke:

Dutchsinse: M8.1 Quake Strikes Mexico

9/08/2017 — Extremely Large M8.1 earthquake strikes Mexico — Buoys showing movement in ocean

Mysterious fossil footprints may cast doubt on human evolution timeline

Backing up what the Alternative Archaeology crowd have been saying for years, it seems humans have been around for many millions of years. The standard model of human evolution seems to be unravelling and it all seems to be realigning to the alternative theories that were being rubbished not so long ago. In fact it all seems to happening with careful timing. But hey, I’m a “tin hatter” so I see conspiracies everywhere!

As if the Laetoli footprints weren’t controversial enough (they aren’t “Lucy” prints regardless of what her adherents claim, and in fact are indistinguishable from modern human footprints) along comes these bipedal hominid prints pushing the timeline back by millions of years further…AND NOT FROM AFRICA!

And  a human foot logically suggests a human body. So there goes “out of Africa” and there goes “Lucy is Eve” out the window.

I include two articles, the first being an MSM source, the second for the more technically inclined:

Martin H

footprints

http://newatlas.com/author/michael-irving/

We share plenty of features with apes, but the shape of our feet isn’t one of them. So that makes the discovery of human-like footprints dating back 5.7 million years – a time when our ancestors were thought to still be getting around on ape-like feet – a surprising one. Further confounding the mystery is the fact that these prints were found in the Greek islands, implying hominins left Africa much earlier than our current narrative suggests.

Fossilized bones and footprints have helped us piece together the history of human evolution. One of the earliest hominins – ancestors of ours that are more closely related to humans than chimps – was a species called Ardipithecus ramidus, which is known from over 100 specimens. Living about 4.4 million years ago, it had an ape-like foot, with the hallux (the big toe) pointing out sideways rather than falling in line like ours. Fast-forward about 700,000 years, and a set of footprints from Laetoli in Tanzania shows that a more human foot shape had evolved by then.
Enter the newly-discovered footprints. Found in Trachilos in western Crete, they have a distinctly human-like shape, with a big toe of a similar size, shape and position to ours. They appear to have been made by a more primitive hominin than the creature that left the Laetoli prints, but there’s a problem: they also predate Ardipithecus by about 1.3 million years. That means a human-like foot had evolved much earlier than previously thought, throwing a spanner into the accepted idea that the ape-footed Ardipithecus was a direct human

ancestor.

THE REST:

https://newatlas.com/fossil-footprints-human-evolution/51163/

Possible hominin footprints from the late Miocene (c. 5.7 Ma) of Crete?

Abstract:
We describe late Miocene tetrapod footprints (tracks) from the Trachilos locality in western Crete (Greece), which show hominin-like characteristics. They occur in an emergent horizon within an otherwise marginal marine succession of Messinian age (latest Miocene), dated to approximately 5.7 Ma (million years), just prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The tracks indicate that the trackmaker lacked claws, and was bipedal, plantigrade, pentadactyl and strongly entaxonic. The impression of the large and non-divergent first digit (hallux) has a narrow neck and bulbous asymmetrical distal pad. The lateral digit impressions become progressively smaller so that the digital region as a whole is strongly asymmetrical. A large, rounded ball impression is associated with the hallux. Morphometric analysis shows the footprints to have outlines that are distinct from modern non-hominin primates and resemble those of hominins. The interpretation of these footprints is potentially controversial. The print morphology suggests that the trackmaker was a basal member of the clade Hominini, but as Crete is some distance outside the known geographical range of pre-Pleistocene hominins we must also entertain the possibility that they represent a hitherto unknown late Miocene primate that convergently evolved human-like foot anatomy.

THE REST:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001678781730113X

 

Antony Sutton, Skull&Bones, Hitler, the Bush family

Antony Sutton, Skull&Bones, Hitler, the Bush family

by Jon Rappoport

August 27, 2017

Image result for Antony Sutton, Skull&Bones, Hitler, the Bush familyThe prodigious author and researcher, Antony Sutton (1925-2002), wrote about hidden men behind momentous events.

I recently came across a 1999 interview with Sutton, conducted by Kris Millegan, researcher and head of TrineDay publishers.

Millegan wrote about Antony Sutton in 1999: “Antony C. Sutton, 74, has been persecuted but never prosecuted for his research and subsequent publishing of his findings. His mainstream career was shattered by his devotion towards uncovering the truth. In 1968, his Western Technology and Soviet Economic Development was published by The Hoover Institute at Stanford University. Sutton showed how the Soviet state’s technological and manufacturing base, which was then engaged in supplying the North Vietnamese the armaments and supplies to kill and wound American soldiers, was built by US firms and mostly paid for by the US taxpayers. From their largest steel and iron plant, to automobile manufacturing equipment, to precision ball-bearings and computers, basically the majority of the Soviet’s large industrial enterprises had been built with the United States help or technical assistance.”

“…Then, someone sent Antony a membership list of Skull and Bones and— ‘a picture jumped out’. And what a picture! A multigenerational foreign-based secret society with fingers in all kinds of pies and roots going back to ‘Illuminati’ influences in 1830’s Germany.”

Here are excerpts from the 1999 interview:

Millegan – Can you tell the story of how you learned of Skull & Bones? And how you felt?

Sutton – I knew nothing of S&B until I received a letter in the early 80’s asking if I would like to look at a genuine membership list. For no real reason I said yes. It was agreed to send the package by Federal Express and I could keep it for 24 hours, it had to be returned to the safe. It was a “black bag” job by a family member disgusted with their activities.

For the benefit of any S&B members who may read and doubt the statement; the membership list is in two volumes, black leather bound. Living members and deceased members in separate volumes. Very handsome books.

I spent all night in Kinko’s, Santa Cruz, copied the entire volumes and returned within the 24 hour period.

I have never released any copies or identified the source. I figured each copy could be coded and enable S&B to trace the leak.

How did I feel? I felt then (as I do now} that these “prominent” men are really immature juveniles at heart. The horrible reality is that these little boys have been dominant in their influence in world affairs. No wonder we have wars and violence. Skull and Bones is the symbol of terrorist violence, pirates, the SS Deaths Head Division in WW Two, labels on poison bottles and so on.

I kept the stack of xerox sheets for quite a while before I looked at them—when I did look—a picture jumped out, THIS was a significant part of the so called establishment. No wonder the world has problems!

Millegan: – What did your study of elites, economics, secrecy and technology do for your career?

Sutton – Depends what you mean by “career”?

By conventional standards I am an abject failure. I’ve been thrown out of two major Universities (UCLA and Stanford), denied tenure at Cal State Los Angeles. Every time I write something, it appears to offend someone in the Establishment and they throw me to the wolves.

On the other hand I’ve written 26 books, published a couple of newsletters and so on…even more important I’ve never compromised on the truth. And I don’t quit.

In material terms…hopeless failure. In terms of discovery…I think I’ve been successful. Judge a man by his enemies. William Buckley called me a “jerk”. Glenn Campbell, former Director of the Hoover Institution, Stanford called me “a problem”.

Skull & Bones

Millegan – Did any of Hitler’s economic policies threaten the interests of the international bankers, and if so did that play a role in his downfall?

Sutton – Hitler’s economic policies were OK’d by the bankers right through the war…ITT, Chase, Texaco and others were operating in Nazi-held France as late as 1945. In fact Chase in Paris was trying to get [acquire] Nazi accounts as late as 1944. When we got to Germany in May 1945, I remember seeing a (bombed-out) Woolworth store in Hamburg and thinking, “What’s Woolworth doing in Nazi Germany?” While we were bombed and shelled it was “business as usual” for Big Business. Try the Alien Custodian Papers.

Union Banking [Corporation] is very important. I made a documentary for Dutch National TV some years ago. It got all the way through the production process to the Dutch TV Guide…at the last minute it was pulled and another film substituted. This documentary has proof of Bush financing Hitler—documents.

Maybe my Dutch friends will still get it viewed, but the apparatus reaches into Holland.

Millegan – What is the story that was going to be told on Dutch TV? And what is the story of its censorship?

Sutton – Couple of years back, a Dutch TV production company from Amsterdam—under contract to Dutch National TV—came to US to make documentary on S&B [Skull and Bones]. They went to the Bones Temple and other places and interviewed people on East Coast. On West Coast, they interviewed myself and one other person.

I saw extracts from the original and it is a good professional job. They had documents linking Bush family and other S&B members to financing Hitler through Union Banking of New York and its Dutch correspondent bank. More than I have in [Sutton’s book] WALL STREET AND THE RISE OF HITLER.

The first version was later upgraded into a two part documentary and scheduled for showing this last March. It was pulled at last minute and has never been shown.

(This Dutch TV production is on YouTube in two parts: Part 1 and Part 2)

Millegan – What do you see for the future?

Suttton – Chaos, confusion and ultimately a battle between the individual and the State.

The individual is the stronger; and will win. The state is a fiction sanctified by Hegel and his followers to CONTROL the individual.

Sooner or later people will wake up. First we have to dump the trap of right and left, this is a Hegelian trap to divide and control. The battle is not between right and left; it is between us and them…

—end of interview excerpt—

Image result for Antony Sutton, Skull&Bones, Hitler, the Bush familyHere is a telling Antony Sutton quote from his book, The Best Enemy Money Can Buy (1986):

“By using data of Russian origin it is possible to make an accurate analysis of the origins of this equipment. It was found that all the main diesel and steam-turbine propulsion systems of the ninety-six Soviet ships on the Haiphong supply run [to the North Vietnamese] that could be identified (i.e., eighty-four out of the ninety-six) originated in design or construction outside the USSR. We can conclude, therefore, that if the [US] State and Commerce Departments, in the 1950s and 1960s, had consistently enforced the legislation passed by Congress in 1949, the Soviets would not have had the ability to supply the Vietnamese War – and 50,000 more Americans and countless Vietnamese would be alive today.”

“Who were the government officials responsible for this transfer of known military technology? The concept originally came from National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, who reportedly sold President Nixon on the idea that giving military technology to the Soviets would temper their global territorial ambitions. How Henry arrived at this gigantic non sequitur is not known. Sufficient to state that he aroused considerable concern over his motivations. Not least that Henry had been a paid family employee of the Rockefellers since 1958 and has served as International Advisory Committee Chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank, a Rockefeller concern.”

If you think such traitorous actions could never have occurred, I point you to another researcher, Charles Higham, and his 1983 classic, Trading with the Enemy.

Higham focuses on World War 2. The men behind the curtain Higham exposed are in the same basic group that Antony Sutton exposed.

Higham, Trading with the Enemy:

“What would have happened if millions of American and British people, struggling with coupons and lines at the gas stations, had learned that in 1942 Standard Oil of New Jersey [part of the Rockefeller empire] managers shipped the enemy’s [Germany’s] fuel through neutral Switzerland and that the enemy was shipping Allied fuel? Suppose the public had discovered that the Chase Bank in Nazi-occupied Paris after Pearl Harbor was doing millions of dollars’ worth of business with the enemy with the full knowledge of the head office in Manhattan [the Rockefeller family among others?] Or that Ford trucks were being built for the German occupation troops in France with authorization from Dearborn, Michigan? Or that Colonel Sosthenes Behn, the head of the international American telephone conglomerate ITT, flew from New York to Madrid to Berne during the war to help improve Hitler’s communications systems and improve the robot bombs that devastated London? Or that ITT built the FockeWulfs that dropped bombs on British and American troops? Or that crucial ball bearings were shipped to Nazi-associated customers in Latin America with the collusion of the vice-chairman of the U.S. War Production Board in partnership with Goering’s cousin in Philadelphia when American forces were desperately short of them? Or that such arrangements were known about in Washington and either sanctioned or deliberately ignored?”

Getting the picture?

War, what is it good for? It’s good for business. It’s good for creating chaos and destruction. It’s good for launching new global organizations, in the aftermath; organizations that exert a level of control and reach that didn’t exist before. It’s good for launching organizations like the United Nations and the European Union and the World Trade Organization—dedicated to Globalism, which in turn is dedicated to planned civilization, in which the individual is demeaned and the group is All.

Freedom is demeaned, and dominance by the few over the many is hailed as peace in our time.

Antony Sutton, Skull&Bones, Hitler, the Bush family

Rappoport

Babylonian Trigonometry Was Superior To Modern Mathematics, 3700 Years Ago!

 

They also beat the Ancient Greeks to it, according to Australian academics

SOME READERS MAY ALSO PICK UP ON THE NUMBER “322”, THE MYSTERIOUS NUMBER OF THE YALE SKULL AND BONES FRATERNITY. COINCIDENCE?

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/babylonians-trigonometry-develop-more-advanced-modern-mathematics-3700-years-ago-ancient-a7910936.html

The Ancient Babylonians knew about a form of trigonometry more advanced than the modern-day version – about 1,000 years before its supposed invention by the Ancient Greeks, academics in Australia say.

The astonishing claim is based on a 3,700-year-old clay tablet inscribed with a table of numbers.

Babylonian TrigonometryKnown as Plimpton 322, it is already known to contain evidence that the Babylonians knew Pythagoras’ famous equation for right-angled triangles, long before the Greek philosopher gave his name to it.And researchers at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) have claimed it also shows the Babylonians developed a highly sophisticated form of trigonometry – the system of maths used to describe angles that has tortured generations of school pupils with sine, cosine and tangent.The city of Babylon in Mesopotamia, an early cradle of human civilisation in what is now Iraq, was famed for its Hanging Gardens, said to be one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world.

And mathematician Dr Daniel Mansfield suggested its people developed trigonometry to help their architects design the city’s major buildings.

 

“Our research shows it’s a trigonometric table so unfamiliar and advanced that in some respects it’s superior to modern trigonometry,” he said.

“We’ve discovered these lines represent the ratios for a series of right-angled triangles ranging from almost a square to almost a flat line.

“This makes Plimpton 322 a powerful tool that could have been used for surveying fields or architectural calculations to build palaces, temples or step pyramids.”

Dr Mansfield explained that the Babylonians’ system of counting enabled them to perform complicated calculations more easily that mathematicians today.

“The Babylonians unique approach to arithmetic and geometry means this is not only the world’s oldest trigonometric table, it’s also the only completely accurate trigonometric table on record,” he said.

“Why? It all comes down to fractions. We count in base 10 which only has two exact fractions, one half, which is 0.5, and one fifth, which is 0.2.

“That’s problematic if you want to divide. For example, one dollar divided by three is 33 cents with one cent left over.

“The Babylonians counted in base 60, the same system we use for telling time. This has many more exact fractions.

“It doesn’t sound like much, but this allowed them to do a lot more exact division. One hour divided by three is 20 minutes – exactly.

“By using this system, the Babylonians were able to make calculations that completely avoided any inexact numbers, thereby avoiding any errors associated with multiplying those numbers.”

And the Babylonian system might actually have lessons for science today, he claimed.

“With this greater accuracy we think this system has enormous potential for application in surveying, computers and education,” Dr Mansfield said.

“It’s rare that the ancient world teaches us something new. After 3,000 years, Babylonian mathematics might just be coming back into fashion.”

Plimpton 322 was discovered in southern Iraq by the early 1900s by archaeologist, diplomat and antique dealer Edgar Banks, who was the inspiration for the character of Indiana Jones.

The tablet has numbers written in cuneiform script in four columns and 15 rows.

There were suggestions in the 1980s that the numbers showed knowledge of trigonometry, but this had been dismissed more recently.

But Dr Mansfield said their research revealed it was a “novel kind of trigonometry” that was based on ratios, rather than angles and circles.

“It is a fascinating mathematical work that demonstrates undoubted genius,” he said.

One problem with Plimpton 322 is the left-hand edge is broken.

The UNSW researchers presented mathematical evidence that it originally had six columns, rather than four, and 38 rows, not 15.

They believe ancient scribes could have generated numbers using the tablet, which they suggest was a teacher’s aid to checking students’ quadratic equations.

Hipparchus, a Greek astronomer who lived in about 120 BC, is traditionally regarded as the founder of trigonometry.

But Professor Norman Wildberger, who worked with Dr Mansfield, said: “Plimpton 322 predates Hipparchus by more than 1,000 years.

“It opens up new possibilities not just for modern mathematics research, but also for mathematics education. With Plimpton 322 we see a simpler, more accurate trigonometry that has clear advantages over our own.

“A treasure-trove of Babylonian tablets exists, but only a fraction of them have been studied yet. The mathematical world is only waking up to the fact that this ancient but very sophisticated mathematical culture has much to teach us.”

A paper about the research was published in Historia Mathematica, the official journal of the International Commission on the History of Mathematics.

Earliest Known Gospel Commentary: “Don’t Take The Gospels Literally”

Should Christians take the Bible as “Gospel”? Not according to this rediscovered work, which sheds light on the allegorical aspects and intent of early Church authors. With an increasing trend towards fundamentalism, literalism and an insistence that the Bible is a historical document (usually tied in with Flat Earth theories somehow), this is a refreshing insight and an important archaeological discovery.

https://theconversation.com/lost-latin-commentary-on-the-gospels-rediscovered-after-1-500-years-thanks-to-digital-technology-82874

The earliest Latin commentary on the Gospels, lost for more than 1,500 years, has been rediscovered and made available in English for the first time. The extraordinary find, a work written by a bishop in northern Italy, Fortunatianus of Aquileia, dates back to the middle of the fourth century.

The biblical text of the manuscript is of particular significance, as it predates the standard Latin version known as the Vulgate and provides new evidence about the earliest form of the Gospels in Latin.

Despite references to this commentary in other ancient works, no copy was known to survive until Dr Lukas Dorfbauer, a researcher from the University of Salzburg, identified Fortunatianus’ text in an anonymous manuscript copied around the year 800 and held in Cologne Cathedral Library. The manuscripts of Cologne Cathedral Library were made available online in 2002.

Scholars had previously been interested in this ninth-century manuscript as the sole witness to a short letter which claimed to be from the Jewish high priest Annas to the Roman philosopher Seneca. They had dismissed the 100-page anonymous Gospel commentary as one of numerous similar works composed in the court of Charlemagne. But when he visited the library in 2012, Dorfbauer, a specialist in such writings, could see that the commentary was much older than the manuscript itself.

In fact, it was none other than the earliest Latin commentary on the Gospels.

Pearls of wisdom

In his De Viris Illustribus (Lives of Famous Men), written at the end of the fourth century, Saint Jerome, who was also responsible for the revision of the Gospels and the translation of the Hebrew Scriptures known as the Vulgate, included an entry for Fortunatianus – who had been bishop of the northern Italian diocese of Aquileia some 50 years earlier. This prominent cleric had written a Gospel commentary including a series of chapter titles, which Jerome described as “a pearl without price” and had consulted when writing his own commentary on the Gospel of Matthew.

San Gerolamo (Saint Jerome) by Caravaggio. Galleria Borghese

Later Christian authors, such as Rabanus Maurus and Claudius of Turin, searched for it in vain. As with so many works from antiquity, it seemed to have been lost, the remaining copies destroyed in a Vandal raid or eaten by mice in a dusty library.

Among the features which attracted Dorfbauer’s attention was a long list of 160 chapter titles detailing the contents of the commentary, which corresponded to Jerome’s description of Fortunatianus’ work. In addition, the biblical text of the Cologne manuscript did not match the standard version of the Gospels produced by Jerome, but seemed to come from an earlier stage in the history of the Latin bible.

Groundbreaking discovery

This was where the University of Birmingham came in. The university’s Institute for Textual Scholarship and Electronic Editing (ITSEE) is home to long-term projects working on new editions of the Bible in Greek and Latin. As a specialist in the Latin New Testament, I was able to compare the biblical quotations in the Cologne manuscript with our extensive databases. Parallels with texts circulating in northern Italy in the middle of the 4th century offered a perfect fit with the context of Fortunatianus.

Fortunatianus manuscript; by permission of Cologne Cathedral Library. Author provided

Astonishingly, despite being copied four centuries after the last reference to his Gospel commentary, this manuscript seemed to preserve the original form of Fortunatianus’ groundbreaking work.

Such a discovery is of considerable significance to our understanding of the development of Latin biblical interpretation, which went on to play such an important part in the development of Western thought and literature. In this substantial commentary, Fortunatianus is reliant on even earlier writings which formed the link between Greek and Latin Christianity.

This sheds new light on the way the Gospels were read and understood in the early Church, in particular the reading of the text known as “allegorical exegesis” in which elements in the stories are interpreted as symbols. So, for example, when Jesus climbs into a boat on the Sea of Galilee, Fortunatianus explains that the sea which is sometimes rough and dangerous stands for the world, while the boat corresponds to the Church in which Jesus is present and carries people to safety.

There are also moments of insight into the lives of fourth-century Italian Christians, as when the bishop uses a walnut as an image of the four Gospels or holds up a Roman coin as a symbol of the Trinity.

English translation

In the form of a single (no longer anonymous) manuscript, or even a scholarly edition of the Latin text, it will still be some time before this work becomes as widely known as the famous writings of later Christian teachers such as Ambrose, Augustine and Jerome.

Fortunatianus manuscript: now available online; by permission of Cologne Cathedral Library. Author provided

For that reason, I have worked closely with Dr Dorfbauer to prepare an English translation of his full Latin edition of the commentary, the first ever to be produced.

This will enable a much wider audience to take account of this rediscovered work. In fact, this English version may be the form in which most people will encounter Fortunatianus’ commentary – as studying languages is now a much smaller component in theological study and online translation tools are beginning to produce more satisfactory results.

But for the fullest appreciation of this work, it will still be necessary to put alternatives to one side and consult the original – which is how the commentary was rediscovered in the first place.

SEE ALSO:

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/08/22/dont-take-bible-literally-says-scholar-brought-light-earliest/

“The earliest Latin interpretation of the Gospels has been brought to light by a British academic – and it suggests that readers should not take the Bible literally.

Lost for 1,500 years, the fourth-century commentary by African-born Italian bishop Fortunatianus of Aquileia interprets the Gospels as a series of allegories instead of a literal history.

Dr Hugh Houghton, of the University of Birmingham, who translated the work, said it was an approach which modern Christians could learn from.”